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  • 22-September-2021

    English

    Who develops AI-related innovations, goods and services? - A firm-level analysis

    This study proposes an exploratory analysis of the characteristics of Artificial Intelligence (AI) 'actors'. It focuses on entities that deploy AI-related technologies or introduce AI-related goods and services on large international markets. It builds on the OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Micro-data Lab infrastructure, and, in particular, on Intellectual Property (IP) rights data (patents and trademarks) combined with company-level data. Statistics on AI-related patents and trademarks show that AI-related activities are strongly concentrated in some countries, sectors, and actors. Development of AI technologies and/or goods and services is mainly due to start-ups or large incumbents, located in the United States, Japan, Korea, or the People’s Republic of China, and, to a lesser extent, in Europe. A majority of these actors operate in ICT-related sectors. The composition of the IP portfolio of the AI actors indicates that AI is frequently combined with a variety of sector-specific technologies, goods, or services.
  • 22-September-2021

    English

    Intangibles and industry concentration - Supersize me

    This paper presents new evidence on the growing scale of big businesses in the United States, Japan, and Europe. It finds broad evidence of rising industry concentration across the majority of countries and sectors over the period 2002 to 2014. Rising concentration is strongly associated with intensive investment in intangibles, particularly innovative assets, software, and data. This relationship appears to be stronger in more globalised and digital-intensive industries. The results are consistent with intangibles disproportionately benefiting large firms and enabling them to scale up and increase market shares. We find nuanced implications of these new business models for competition – rising markups and reduced churning amongst the top firms, but falling industry prices.
  • 15-September-2021

    English

    Industrial Policy for the Sustainable Development Goals - Increasing the Private Sector’s Contribution

    How can governments support the private sector’s contribution to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)? This book investigates the contribution of firms to the SDGs, particularly through their core business, taking into account inter-sectoral linkages and global value chains, using novel techniques and data sources. Despite the fact that the private sector has the potential to contribute to a wide range of SDGs, and that many firms find it economically viable to develop sustainable products and services, firms still face significant hurdles in their sustainability transition. Based on this new evidence, this book provides some recommendations on the design of industrial policies to enhance the contribution of businesses to the SDGs.
  • 15-September-2021

    English

    Shipbuilding policy and market developments in selected economies

    This report presents shipbuilding market developments of nine of the largest shipbuilding economies which are not members of the OECD Council Working Party on Shipbuilding (WP6). Over the last 20 years, the share of these economies in global ship deliveries has been increasingly driven by the rapid growth of Chinese ship completions and reached 43.7% of global completions in 2020. The report also provides an overview of support measures taken by selected WP6 non-members. Using public sources, over the period March 2020 to March 2021, these economies appeared to employ a total of 21 support measures, with the most frequently used measure being protection of the domestic market. Of these economies, the People’s Republic of China used the largest number of support measures, followed by the United States.
  • 10-September-2021

    English

    Building local ecosystems for social innovation - A methodological framework

    Social innovations have proven to be valuable in identifying, designing and implementing new solutions to social and environmental problems. The recent COVID-19 outbreak has put a spotlight on the potential of social innovation as a resilience mechanism, including for local development. This paper presents a preliminary framework for analysing social innovation ecosystems at the local level. It can help policy makers to better understand the different concepts around social innovation, and to develop policies to support social innovation and its implementation. The first section considers the features of social innovation and the benefits it can bring. The second section provides an analytical framework for social innovation at the local level. The final section sets a number of guidelines that support the implementation of social innovation ecosystems at local level, including examples of specific policy instruments.
  • 10-September-2021

    English

    Social impact measurement for the Social and Solidarity Economy - OECD Global Action Promoting Social & Solidarity Economy Ecosystems

    The OECD Global Action 'Promoting Social and Solidarity Economy Ecosystems', funded by the European Union, through its work stream on social impact measurement, endeavours to: 1) explore current social impact measurement practices among social and solidarity economy organisations; 2) identify the methodologies best suited to capture the social benefits of the social and solidarity economy; and 3) understand what policy initiatives can be used to foster a social impact measurement culture and practice in the social and solidarity economy. After discussing the origins and drivers of social impact measurement, this paper examines existing methodologies developed at the local, national and international level and finally reviews how these are being implemented in the social and solidarity economy. It takes stock of the policy mapping exercise conducted by the OECD, which draws on responses to an online survey and on the stakeholder consultations conducted in Brazil, Canada, India, Korea, Mexico and the United States.
  • 9-September-2021

    English

    Multinational enterprises and intangible capital

    This paper provides new evidence on the role of intangible capital in global value chains (GVCs) by focusing on the role of multinational enterprises (MNEs) and their foreign affiliates in value capture through intangible assets. Industry-level data suggest that foreign affiliates of MNEs generate more income through intangible capital than domestic-owned firms. Intangible returns from foreign affiliates are found both in the host economy and in foreign-owned firms in other countries participating in the GVC. Some heterogeneity is observed across GVCs with returns to intangible capital of foreign-owned firms concentrated in key manufacturing (chemicals including pharmaceuticals, food products, ICT and electronics, and motor vehicles) and services GVCs (finance and insurance, other business services, wholesale and retail, and telecoms). Five case studies (Adidas, AstraZeneca, Rocket Internet, Starbucks and Tata Consultancy Services) complement the analysis by looking at the role of intangible capital in the GVC of specific MNEs.
  • 7-September-2021

    English

    G20 Rome guidelines for the future of tourism - OECD Report to G20 Tourism Working Group

    The G20 Rome guidelines for the future of tourism identifies key issues and opportunities to rethink and reshape tourism policy in response to the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. It presents guidelines for action that are informed by the need to a) restore confidence and enable recovery, b) learn from the experience of the pandemic, and c) prioritise a sustainable development agenda in guiding future tourism. They are based around seven interrelated policy areas: i) safe mobility, ii) crisis management; iii) resilience; iv) inclusiveness; v) green transformation; vi) digital transition; and vii) investment and infrastructure. The G20 Rome guidelines were endorsed in the Rome Communiqué of the 2021 G20 Tourism Ministers’ meeting.
  • 5-August-2021

    English

    Steel Market Developments

    These reports provide an overview of recent supply and demand developments and, when available, forecasts from publicly available sources.

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    Veneto: A manufacturing region with a cultural and creative edge

    The COVID-19 crisis has provided an opportunity to rethink the Veneto Region’s economic strategy. This paper examines the links between cultural and creative sectors and the regional manufacturing economy of the Veneto Region in the North of Italy, highlighting the important role that cultural production, and in particular Venice, can play in the region’s post-pandemic recovery strategies.
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