Green growth and sustainable development

Green Growth and Sustainable Development Forum 2014: Addressing the social implications of green growth



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This Forum took place at the OECD Conference Centre on 13-14 November 2014.

The Forum addressed the social implications of implementing green growth strategies. It explored potential impacts of green growth policies on labour markets, income and households, how governments might best design policy frameworks to address distributional consequences, and relevant indicators for measuring progress.

Day 1

The scene-setting session looked at the importance of inclusive green growth in an increasingly unequal world and the importance of making links between social justice and the environment.

Session 1 was a joint session with the International Energy Agency. It examined energy sector reform's impact on households, with a panel discussion featuring country case studies from the United Kingdom, Germany, Mexico and Indonesia.

Session 2 was a joint session with the Employment, Labour and Social Affairs Committee (ELSAC) and the Committee on Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED), looking at inclusive labour markets for green growth, and presentations focused on both national and local perspectives.

Day 2

An opening plenary session looked at possible policy responses and solutions to challenges related to social implications of green growth.

Parrallel sessions with two groups, each with a faciliator and four discussion leaders, followed. Group 1 was a Joint Session with the International Labour Orgnaisation (ILO) and discussed Active labour market and skills policies for green growth. Group 2 discussed social protection and redistribution policies for green growth.

closing plenary built on the reporting of outcomes from the parallel sessions by the facilitators and scoped priorities for further research. 


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>> Download the Conference Agenda (English, PDF)

>> Téléchargez l'Ordre du jour (Français, PDF)




>> Summary Report (English, PDF)

 ‌‌Issue Note one_ GGSD Forum 2014: Addressing Social Implications of Green Growth: Energy Sector Reform and Its Impact on Households.


Conference Background Papers

Issue Note 1 - Session 1: Social Implications of green growth policies from the perspective of energy sector reform and its impact on households

This issue note focuses on distributional consequences of energy sector reform at the household level with a strong focus on energy taxation. Taxation of energy is a prominent instrument in environmental economics that can be highly cost-efficient. There are, however, a number of other instruments such as direct regulation, subsidies, energy efficiency policies than are not covered in this note. This issue note examines energy poverty in developed and developing countries, defined broadly as non-affordability of energy services.



Issue Note 2 - Session 2: Inclusive Labour Markets for Green Growth


This issue note on inclusive labour markets for green growth focuses on the main opportunities and risks ahead challenging labour market transitions and new sources of jobs growth. The impact of green growth policies on the demand for skills points to higher demand for some specialised skills but the complete picture is unclear, given the likelihood of widespread green innovation in the future. The impact is likely to differ widely across regions and local areas and coordinated strategies at local level are necessary. There are likely to be several effects on the distribution of incomes and green growth policies must be sensitive to the need to raise more people out of poverty



Green Growth Studies

In the context of the OECD Green Growth Strategy, the Green Growth Studies aim to provide concrete recommendations and measurement tools, including indicators and to support countries’ efforts in achieving economic growth and development while ensuring that natural assets continue to provide the resources and environmental services on which well-being relies.

 ‌‌Front cover of the Green Growth paper Adjusting Productivity for Pollution in selected Asian economies

Green Growth Papers

The OECD Green Growth Papers complement the OECD Green Growth Studies series and aim to stimulate discussion and analysis on specific topics and obtain feedback from interested audiences.


For further information and reading please see also related OECD documents

Programme Documents Speakers Presentations Photos Media

Photo of Deputy SG Rintaro Tamaki

Rintaro Tamaki

Deputy Secretary-General, OECD

Rintaro Tamaki was appointed Deputy Secretary-General on August 1, 2011. His portfolio includes Environment, Inclusive Growth, Fiscal Issues, Development, Green Growth and representing the OECD externally on Financial Issues. Prior to joining the OECD, Mr. Tamaki was Vice-Minister of Finance for International Affairs at the Japanese Ministry of Finance. During his prominent career at the Ministry of Finance, Mr. Tamaki worked on various taxation, budget and development issues. He worked for the OECD Secretariat from 1978 -1980 in the Economic Prospects Division and from 1986 -1988 in the Fiscal Affairs Division of DAFFE. In 1994, he was posted to the World Bank as Alternate Executive Director for Japan and in 2002, as Finance Minister at the Embassy of Japan in Washington DC. He then became Deputy Director-General (2005), Director-General (2007) and Vice-Minister of International Affairs (2009) at the Ministry of Finance. 

 Photo of Simon Upton for GGSDF 2014

Simon Upton

Director, Environment Directorate, OECD

Simon Upton is the Environment Director at the Organisation for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD).  The Environment Directorate is responsible for Environmental Performance Reviews of Member Countries, the economic analysis of policy instruments used to improve environmental outcomes and a wide range of work related to water, biodiversity, climate and chemicals. He has played a key role in the development of the OECD’s Green Growth Strategy. Mr. Upton is a New Zealander, a Rhodes Scholar and former Member of Parliament.  He was Minister for Environment and Science & Technology during the 1990s.  He chaired the UN Commission on Sustainable Development in 1999.  He has chaired the Round Table on Sustainable Development at the OECD since 1998 and took over his current role as Environment Director in 2010. Mr Upton is a member of the China Council for International Cooperation on Environment & Development (CCICED).

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Martine Durand

Director, Statistics Directorate, OECD

Martine Durand is the Chief Statistician and Director of the OECD Statistics Directorate. She oversees the Organisation’s statistical activities and is responsible for the work on the measurement of well-being and societal progress and the biennial flagship report How’s Life? Measuring Well Being, as part of the OECD Better Life Initiative.

Prior to this position she was Deputy Director of Employment, Labour and Social Affairs at the OECD. She has authored numerous papers on well-being, labour markets, social policies and international migration. She studied mathematics, statistics and economics from Paris VI University, École Nationale de la Statistique et de l’Administration Économique and the University of Wisconsin-Madison.  


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Stefano Scarpetta

Director for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs, OECD

Mr. Scarpetta joined the OECD in 1991 and held several positions in the Economics Department and in his current Directorate. He led several large-scale research projects, including: "Implementing the OECD Jobs Strategy"; the "Sources of Economic Growth in OECD Countries"; and contributed to others including “The Policy Challenges of Population Ageing" and “The Effects of Product Market Competition on Productivity and Labour Market Outcomes”. From 2002 to 2006 he worked at the World Bank, where he took over the responsibility of labour market advisor and lead economist. In this capacity, he coordinated a Bank-wide research program of Employment and Development and contributed extensively to the Bank's investment climate assessments.  He returned to the Economics Department of the OECD in November 2006 where he became the head of the Country Studies Division in charge of Japan, Korea, China, India, Mexico, Portugal, Denmark and Sweden. From March 2008 to June 2010, he was the editor of the OECD Employment Outlook and the Head of the Employment Analysis and Policy Division of the Directorate of Employment, Labour and Social Affairs (DELSA). He became the Deputy Director of DELSA in June 2010 and in May 2013 has become Director.   

Mr. Scarpetta holds a Ph.D. in Economics  from the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Science Sociales (EHESS), Département et Laboratoire d’Economie Théorique Appliquée (DELTA) in Paris and a Master of Science in Economics from the London School of Economics and Political Science.

Ms. Nathalie Girouard, OECD Green Growth Coordinator

Nathalie Girouard

Coodinator, Green Growth and Sustainable Development

Nathalie Girouard is the coordinator for OECD Green Growth Strategy. She is overseeing the development and mainstreaming of green growth work within the OECD. She was responsible for the delivery of the Strategy’s Synthesis Report to the May 2011 Ministerial Council Meeting. Prior to her responsibilities for steering one of the Organisation’s multi-disciplinary priorities which brings together the work of more than 25 Committees, Nathalie was advisor to the OECD Secretary-General, co-ordinating the accession process of five countries to the OECD. Nathalie's career in the OECD spans over thirteen years in the Economics Department. She was part of the team editing the OECD Economic Outlook. She has published a number of working papers and OECD documents. Nathalie is of Canadian nationality. Prior to her position at the OECD, Nathalie belonged to the Research Department of the Bank of Canada staff.


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Shardul Agrawala

Head of the Environment and Economic Integration Division, OECD

Shardul Agrawala is Head of the Environment and Economy Integration Division at the OECD Environment Directorate. He took up duties in July 2013. In this capacity, Dr. Agrawala leads the Directorate’s work on economic-environmental modelling, empirical analysis of environmental policies, trade and environment, and on resource productivity and waste.

At the OECD since 2002, Dr. Agrawala has previously served as Senior Advisor to the OECD Secretary General, Co-ordinator of the OECD-wide initiative on New Approaches to Economic Challenges, Acting Head of the Climate Change Biodiversity and Development Division, and Senior Economist Climate Change. Dr. Agrawala has published extensively on climate change. He has led teams of international experts for chapters of the Fourth and Fifth Assessment Reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). He has testified before the US Congress, contributed to the Stern Review, and served on advisory panels for the Pilot Program on Climate Resilience of the World Bank and the International Climate Initiative (ICI) of the German Government.

Dr Agrawala received his PhD from Princeton University and has previously held research positions at Princeton University, Harvard University, Columbia University and at the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA). 


 Nathalie Cliquot

Consultant, Local Economic and Employment Development Division, Centre for Entrepreneurship, SMEs and Local Development, OECD

Nathalie Cliquot is a Policy Analyst at the OECD LEED programme (Local Employment and Economic Development) in the Centre for Entrepreneurship, SMEs and Local Development Directorate. She is responsible for the work related to local skills policies and strategies to boost green growth and jobs.

Prior to this position, Nathalie worked in the field of energy and environment policies (chemicals and waste management, sustainable products, energy efficiency in buildings) for private companies, environmental NGOs and EU institutions. In particular, she worked at the European Commission’s Executive Agency for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (EASME) where she coordinated a European funding initiative on training the construction workforce. She holds Master’s degrees in Public Policy Analysis from Sciences Po Paris and in Environment Management from the Free University of Brussels. 

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Giuseppe Nicoletti

Head, Structural Policy Analysis Divison OECD

Giuseppe Nicoletti, who holds a Ph.D. in Economics from New York University, has been heading since 2004 the Structural Policy Analysis Division at the OECD Economics Department in Paris, where he is in charge of cross-country structural studies presented at the Working Party No. 1 of the OECD Economic Policy Committee, including prospective studies drawing long-term growth scenarios for the world economy.

Since 2008, he has also been in charge of work on the economics of climate change mitigation and responsible for green growth related work within the OECD economics department.
In this context, Dr Nicoletti led numerous studies comparing public policies across countries in various areas -- including product and labour markets, taxation, infrastructure investment, innovation and the environment -- and relating these policies to comparative performances of both OECD and emerging economies. 


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John Atherton

Chair of Co-operative Action Programme on Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED)

John Atherton has been with Employment and Social Development Canada and founding departments since 1988. Over the years, he has held a number of challenging positions across the department in both program areas and strategic policy, including Director General, Horizontal Policy and Planning in Employment Programs and Policy Design and Senior Director, Labour Market Policy in Strategic Policy with responsibility for Employment Insurance policy.

Currently John is Director General of Employment Programs and Partnerships, responsible for a wide range of national employment programming.  This includes three labour market agreements with provinces and territories and targeted programs for youth, older workers, persons with disabilities and Official Language Minority Communities. In addition, John is the Chair of the OECD Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED) Directing Committee.

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Janet Asherson

Advisor, International Organisation of Employers

Janet Lynne Asherson DPhil, MBA, started her health and safety career with the UK Health and Safety Executive. She has worked in industry as an EHS manager and in consultancy roles before joining the CBI to lobby on behalf of British business across a wide spectrum of EHS policy areas at national, EU and international level.

Since 2008 she has been the environment, safety and health adviser for the International Organisation of Employers in Geneva, developing a global OSH and sustainability network of multinational companies and influencing UN bodies on EHS policy and practice developments.



Alex Bowen

Principal Research Fellow, Grantham Research Institute, London School of Economics

Dr Alex Bowen joined the new Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment at the London School of Economics in Autumn 2008 as a Principal Research Fellow. His research interests include the design of public policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, ‘green’ growth and the macroeconomic and labour-market aspects of climate-change policies.   He has been a consultant to the EBRD, OECD, World Bank, ADBI, UK DFID and UK DECC. Dr Bowen has a BA in Economics from Cambridge University and a PhD in Economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr Bowen has long been involved in aspects of economic policy, having worked in the Bank of England for sixteen years, most recently as Senior Policy Adviser. He first became involved in climate change issues when seconded as Lead Economist to the team that produced the Stern Review of the Economics of Climate Change in 2006. 

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 Colin Brown

Chair, Working Party No 2 on Tax Policy Analysis and Tax Statistics; OECD Committee on Fiscal Affairs

Colin Brown is the Chair of Working Party 2 on Tax Policy and Statistics of the Committee of Fiscal Affairs, a position he has held since 2013.  He is also the First Assistant Parliamentary Budget Officer in charge of the Budget Analysis Division of the Australian Parliamentary Budget Office (PBO).  His responsibilities at the PBO include preparing costings and analysis of revenue and expenditure proposals for the Australian Parliament and undertaking research into all aspects of the Australian budget.  Prior to moving to the PBO in late 2012, he worked in the Tax Analysis Division of the Australian Treasury.  He has long experience across a wide cross section of taxation matters, including policy costing and analysis, business taxation, resource taxation, environmental taxes, indirect taxes, income taxes and transfer payments and retirement income policy.


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Dominique Bureau

Deputy Director, French Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy

Dominique Bureau is a State Engineer. He is currently Deputy Director of the Economic Council for Sustainable Development, at the French Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development, and Energy. He is also member of the French Railways Regulation Authority (ARAF), and lecturer in economy at Ecole polytechnique, responsible for its Sustainable Developpement Chair.

After having contributed to establish the Economic Analysis Council to the Prime Minister and the Economic Studies and Environmental Assessment Department at the Environment Ministry, he was formerly in charge of the Economic and International Affairs department for the French Ministry of Housing and Transport. Author of scientific articles in applied public economics, he has participated in many Reports, for the French Government. His recent works are about the precautionary principle, urban spawl and transportation, the economic assessment of environnemental policies, and railways regulation. He authored numerous reports and articles dedicated to transport, energy and telecommunications and on environment and sustainable development issues.


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 Laura Cozzi

Head of the Energy Modelling Unit, Directorate of Global Enegry Economics, IEA

Laura Cozzi is Deputy Head of the Directorate for Global Energy Economics at the International Energy Agency. She leads the team in charge of producing the energy projections at the heart of the IEA flagship publication “World Energy Outlook”.Ms. Cozzi has been co-author of over 20 World Energy Outlook and Special Reports, leading several of them. Prior to joining the IEA, she worked for the Italian energy company Eni.

Ms. Cozzi holds Masters degrees in Environmental Engineering (Polytechnic University of Milan) and in Environmental Economics (Eni Corporate University).




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Patricia Crifo

Professor, Ecole Polytechnique

Patrica Crifo is Professor at University Paris Ouest and at Ecole Polytechnique (France), external member of CIRANO (Montréal), member of the French Economic Council for Sustainable Development, of the National commission on Environmental Economics, of the CSR platform and co-responsible of the chair for Sustainable Finance and Responsible Investment (chaire FDIR).

Her research interests lie in green growth, corporate social and environmental responsibility, sustainable finance, technical progress, work organisation and inequality. In 2010 she was nominated for the Best young economist prize (Le Monde/Cercle des économistes). She is Chevalier de l’Ordre National du Mérite since 2014.


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Randall Eberts

President, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research

Dr. Eberts is President of the W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, an independent nonprofit research organization that conducts research on policy-relevant employment and regional economic issues.  His primary areas of research interest include job training, education, low-wage workers, and the evaluation of workforce programs. Recently, he has worked with the US Department of Labor to develop and implement a framework for adjusting national, state, and local performance targets for the workforce system and with the OECD/LEED on issues related to partnerships between local economic development and workforce development agencies and on labor force issues related to green jobs. He has published numerous articles in refereed journals and has co-authored several books.

Before joining the Institute in September 1993, Dr. Eberts was assistant vice president and economist at the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. During 1991-92, Dr. Eberts served as senior staff economist on the President's Council of Economic Advisers.  He was also associate professor of Economics at the University of Oregon and visiting assistant professor at Texas A&M University. Dr. Eberts received his Ph.D. in economics from Northwestern University.  

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Frédéric Gonand

Professor adjunct, Université Paris-Dauphine.

Frédéric Gonand has had a professional career both in the French civil service and in academia. He was an economist at the French Ministry of the Economy from 2000 to 2004 and then at the OECD from 2004 to 2007. He became the Economic Advisor in the private office of Ms Christine Lagarde, then French Minister for the Economy, from 2007 to 2011. He was then appointed by President Sarkozy as Commissioner of the French Energy Regulation authority from 2011 to 2013. As for academia, Frédéric has been elected as Professor (adjunct) of Economics at University Paris-Dauphine, where he also is the director of a Master degree. His research concentrates on energy economics. He is also a consultant for financial institutions and professional organisations and has recently been appointed economic advisor to the main employers’ trade union in the French industrial sector (UIMM/Medef).

He holds a PhD in economics and graduated from Ecole nationale d’administration.

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Sunghoon Hong

Korean Institute of Public Finance

Sunghoon Hong is an economist working at the Korea Institute of Public Finance. He completed his undergraduate studies at Seoul National University and his PhD at Vanderbilt University. His work focused on public economics in connections with taxation theory.


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Ulrike Lehr

Partner, Institute of Economic Structures Research (GWS), Germany 

Dr. Ulrike Lehr studied physics at the University of Essen (Diploma in 1990) and economics at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute, State University, Blacksburg, VA USA (M.Sc. 1992). She received her PhD for a thesis on environmental valuation in 2005 from the University of Hohenheim. She worked as a researcher at the department of System Analysis and Technology Assessment of the German Aerospace Center (2005-2008) at the Rhine-Westphalia Institute of Economics Research, RWI e.V., Essen; Department of energy policy studies and research (1993-1999). She works with GWS as a Senior Expert since 2008 and became partner in 2010.

Dr. Lehr analyses the economic effects of renewable energy (RE) deployment, energy efficiency (EE) increase and the transition to the green economy for Germany, Austria, Russia and Tunisia applying economic simulation models developed by GWS. The analyses have a focus on employment effects detailed by economic sector and by renewable energy and energy efficiency technology. Recently, she has been a consultant to IEA-RETD, IRENA, GIZ, ILO and other international organisations on employment from RE and EE as well as the role of SMEs in the transition towards a Green Economy.


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Andrew Leicester

Manager, Public Policy, Frontier Economics

Andrew Leicester is a Manager in the Public Policy Practice at Frontier Economics, Europe’s leading specialist microeconomic consultancy. He joined Frontier in September 2013. Prior to that, he spent 12 years at the Institute for Fiscal Studies, one of the world’s most highly-regarded independent research institutes. He is a recognised expert on the drivers of consumer demand, drawing on particular on the econometric analysis of household expenditure surveys. His work has been published widely in academic journals and as policy briefings, and focuses on how consumers respond to changes in prices, taxes government policies. He has particular expertise on the role of indirect taxes in a number of markets, including alcohol, tobacco, gambling and carbon. He has written extensively on environmental taxation and wider environmental policy, and co-authored a chapter in the influential Mirrlees Review of the UK tax system on environmental taxes, and co-authored work with the Grantham Institute on how the impacts of more consistent carbon pricing on poorer households could be mitigated through other tax and benefit reforms.

He has an undergraduate degree in Economics from the University of Cambridge and a Master’s in Economics from University College London.


Pedo Luna

General Director for Non-Tax Policy, Ministry of Finance and Public Credit, Mexico

Pedro Luna has worked for the Mexican Ministry of Finance for more than 20 years. Currently he is Director General of Revenue Policy in charge of designing income tax and royalties schemes for state owned firms such as Pemex and CFE -the Mexican national oil and electricity companies, and of measuring energy subsidies. Mr. Luna has a Ph. D. in Public and International Affairs from the Graduate School of Public and International Affairs at the University of Pittsburgh, and an MPP and a BA in Economics from Instituto Tecnologico Autonomo de Mexico in Mexico City.



Russel Mills

Global Director of Energy and Climate Change Policy, The Dow Chemical Company; Chair, Business and Industry Advisory Committee to the OECD (BIAC) Environment Committee

Russel Mills is the Global Director of Energy & Climate Change Policy for Dow Chemical. Additionally, Russel holds the position as Vice President International Government Affairs. Most of his career has been spent in market development, technology exploitation and global business management. He has also gained experience in consolidating acquisitions, setting up new businesses and managing Joint Venture operations. He is a physics graduate of Oxford University. 

Russel has been working in the chemical and related industries for over 30 years. He has worked in energy policy for over 10 years and prior to that, job assignments included the Global Business Director role for the Cargill Dow bio-polymers joint venture, a secondment to the European chemical industry association, and leading the development of technology cooperation and government Public Private Partnership strategies for Dow in Europe.

Russel currently co-chairs the ICCA Energy Leadership Group and is chair of the BIAC Environment Committee. Russel also has extensive ongoing responsibilities within Cefic and with related chemical industry association activities. He sits on the Energy Program Council at Cefic, participates in their post 2020 work and co-chaired the Energy 2050 Roadmap project. Russel represents Dow and leads a number of key initiatives for the company in a range of energy, climate and international policy work.


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Márcia Muchagata

Advisor, Ministers Cabinet, Ministry of Social Development & Fight Against Hunger

Marcia Muchagata is an agronomist (University of São Paulo) and holds a PhD in Development Studies from the University of East Anglia (U.K.). She is Public Policies and Government Management specialist, originally attached to the Brazilian Ministry of Planning and she has worked at the Ministry of Agrarian Development and the Ministry of Environment, dealing with family farming and environment conservation policies.  Márcia is currently at the Minister´s Cabinet of the Ministry of Social Development and Fight against Hunger and represented the Ministry at the Brazilian Executive Secretariat of Rio+20 Conference.  

Before joining the Brazilian federal government she acted as a consultant for different agencies (FAO, DFID, GIZ) and was a researcher at the University of East Anglia and the University of Para (Brazil), working on agrarian systems, participatory approaches and community forest management. 


Youssef Naouar

 Director General, Tunisian Ministry of Vocational Training and Employment

 Aside from his role as Director General at the Tunisian Ministry of Vocational Training and Employment, Mr. Naouar is also national co-ordinator of the "platform of green jobs" in Tunisia.





Photo of Karsten Neuhoff for GGSD Forum 2014.

Karsten Neuhoff 

Head of Department of Climate Policy, German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin) 

Karsten Neuhoff leads the Department Climate Policy at the German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin) and is Professor for Energy and Climate Policy at Technical University Berlin.

Previously he was senior research associate at the Faculty of Economics at the University of Cambridge, leading projects on the future of UK power system, renewable integration and technology policy and coordinating for the research network Climate Strategies European projects on the implementation of the European Emissions Trading Scheme and North-South Climate Cooperation. He holds a Diplom in Physics from the University of Heidelberg, an MSc in Economics from the London School of Economics, and a PhD in Economics from the University of Cambridge.




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Peter Poschen

Mr Poschen has over 25 years of experience on four continents in sustainable development with a focus on the social dimensions of the use of natural resources.He is currently Director of the Enterprises Department of the International Labour Office (ILO) in Geneva, where he continues to be responsible for the coordination of the ILO Global Green Jobs Programme.

Born in 1955, Mr Poschen holds a PhD in sciences from the University of Freiburg in Germany (1987), an MSc in forestry (1980) and a Diploma in ‘Modeling and accounting for sustainable development’ from the Institute of Social Studies in The Hague (2006). After joining the ILO in 1986, Mr Poschen has served in various capacities: providing technical support to the infrastructure field programmes in Africa (1988-90), forestry and wood industries specialist in the Sectoral Activities Department (1991-94), coordinator of the Environment and World of Work Country Programme, based in Santiago, Chile (1994/95), team leader in the Sectoral Activities Department (1996-2002), coordinator of the Decent Work Pilot Programmes in the Policy Integration Department (2002-2005) and Senior Advisor on Sustainable Development (2006-2009).

Before joining the ILO, Mr Poschen served as a volunteer in Ethiopia (1981-84) and worked as a researcher at the University of Freiburg. 

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Guy Preston

Deputy Director-General: Environmental Programmes, Department of Environmental Affairs

Dr. Preston is responsible for the Environmental Programmes within the Department of Environmental Affairs. He leads a team of 480 people, running 14 programmes that in 2014/15 will provide work opportunities to over 69,000 people, focusing on key environmental initiatives, and with an annual budget of over R2.8 billion. He is responsible for environmental Biosecurity in South Africa – the prevention and control of invasive species.
He was Special Advisor to the Minister of Water Affairs and Forestry, Professor Kader Asmal, and to his successor, Ronnie Kasrils, from April 1995 to August 2001. He simultaneously initiated and leads a spectrum of Government’s environmental programmes.He is also responsible for the implementation of the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act regulations on alien and invasive species, and its Biosecurity function for the country – a major function.

He was an Executive Board Member and later Chairperson of the Global Invasive Species Programme.  He was also responsible for drafting an African strategy on invasive alien species, for NEPAD.
Prior to joining Professor Asmal, he was head of research at the Environmental Evaluation Unit at the University of Cape Town.  His User-pays Project, looking at options for water and energy conservation, and focusing on visitors to national parks, led to his being invited to be Special Advisor to Professor Kader Asmal.

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Michael Renner

Senior Researcher, Worldwatch Institute

Michael is a Senior Researcher at the Worldwatch Institute and has served as a consultant on green jobs. He was the lead author of Green Jobs: Towards Decent Work in a Sustainable, Low-Carbon World (2008), jointly commissioned by the UN Environment Programme and the International Labour Organization. His work for the ILO includes co-authorship of Working Towards Sustainable Development: Opportunities for Decent Work and Social Inclusion in a Green Economy (2012).  Since late 2011, he has co-authored reports fort he International Renewable Energy Agency on Energy Access and Jobs (2012) and on Renewable Energy and Jobs (2014), and with IRENA colleagues he writes the jobs sidebar for the annual REN21 Global Status Report. Michael is a German national and holds a Master's degree in international relations from the University of Amsterdam.



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Leida Rijnhout

Director, Global Policies and Sustainability Unit, European Environmental Bureau

Leida Rijnhout is a Dutch national with a background in cultural anthropology with more then 30 years of experience in international development cooperation and sustainability. For many years, she has facilitated and coordinated the global NGO community to realise their active engagement in United Nations processes on Sustainable Development and Environment. She was heavily involved at the Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 (Johannesburg) and at Rio+20 in 2012 (Rio de Janeiro), including all the preparatory meetings. At the moment she coordinates, as Organising Partner for the UN, the input of the global NGO society in the definition of the future Sustainable Development Goals (follow up of the MDGs) and governance for SD. She is the European Focal Point for civil society in Europe, in the 10 year Framework on Sustainable Consumption and Production (UNEP). And she is the representative for the Environmental NGOs at the OECD.
Before switching to Sustainable Development, Ms. Rijnhout worked for 15 years in international cooperation, with a special focus on rural development in Latin America (Bolivia). She was responsible for the implementation and evaluation of several rural development programs in Bolivia and advised on the establishment of local credit systems and local food processing. For four years, she co-ordinated the platform of four development NGOs, working together in one joint program. Following this, Ms. Rijnhout was appointed coordinator of the Flemish platform for Sustainable Development (VODO), where, with her team, she worked for eight years on innovative and integrating tools to promote Sustainable Development. After that she became the Executive Director of ANPED (Northern Alliance for Sustainability)

She speaks Dutch, English and Spanish.

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Georg Schaefer

Sector Project Sustainable Economic Development (GIZ), Germany

Georg Schaefer is economist. He joined GTZ, now GIZ (a German federal enterprise for international cooperation) in 1990. From 1996-2003, he served as advisor in the Senegalese Ministry of Economy, Finance and Planning. In 2003, he became member of the Economic Section Africa. In 2006, he managed GTZ’s working group on programme-based approaches. From 2007-2011, he was head of the Economic Section Africa. From 2012-2014, Mr. Schaefer worked as Senior Expert Economic Policy in GIZ’s Division Economy and Employment and as Senior Advisor in the Sector Project “Employment Promotion in Development Cooperation”. He is now head of the Sector Project “Sustainable Economic Development”, commissioned by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ). Focal areas of his work are development economics and economic policy.



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Anushree Sinha

Senior Fellow, NCAER/National Council of Applied Economic Research

Dr Anushree Sinha is a Senior Fellow at NCAER, a premier applied research institution situated in New Delhi, India. Before assuming her current position, she was NCAER’s Principal Economist during 2001-2003.  She has over 18 years of experience in macro analysis of gender and the informal economy while working at NCAER. Dr Sinha is a PhD from Jadavpur University while being affiliated with the Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata. She is a post-doctorate from the Department of International Development, University of Oxford, UK. Dr Sinha has also been a Visiting Fellow at the World Institute for Development Economics Research of the United Nations University (UNU-WIDER), Finland, and at the Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania, USA. Dr Sinha has been senior consultant with the various arms of the UN including the United Nations Economic Commission (UNECA) and the ILO in their initiatives in mainstreaming informal workers and gender. She has also worked and is working amongst others with the World Bank, IDRC, GIZ, DFID and the ADB. Further she works with state and central government and other public agencies in India for analysing public policies and programmes. Recently Dr Sinha has also completed a Visiting Professorship (Fulbright) to teach on Gender and Development at the University of Rutgers, USA (Fall 2013).

Dr Sinha uses economy-wide frameworks in analysing impact of macro policies to examine their micro impacts including those on households, and workers; with a focus on the more vulnerable sections (such as on informal workers and women). Currently she has vastly been involved with issues relating to the green sectors and employment potential of green sectoral growth in India. Dr Sinha has written (and co-authored) a number of book chapters, edited volumes, papers for professional journals and articles for newspapers and newsletters. She also analyses current economic policies mainly on the Indian television media.

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Stefan Speck

Project Manager, Integrated Environmental Assessments Programme, European Environment Agency

Stefan Speck is working at the European Environment Agency (EEA) in Copenhagen. He holds a PhD in economics from Keele University in England. His work at the EEA focuses on the application of market-based instruments (MBIs) for environmental policy, environmental fiscal reform and the green economy. He was part of the research team of the EU-funded project ‘Competitiveness Effects of Environmental Tax Reforms’ (COMETR)  and contributed to the research project ‘Resource Productivity, Environmental Tax Reform and Sustainable Growth in Europe’ (PETRE) funded by the Anglo-German Foundation.

In the past he implemented projects for a range of clients including the European Commission (EC), Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Danish Environmental Protection Agency (DEPA), and the UK Department for International Development (DFID). He carried out research projects in Europe, Africa and Asia.

He published widely on environmental fiscal reform and green economy; he was co-editor of the books Environmental Fiscal Mechanism and Reform for Low Carbon Development: East Asia and Europe (2013), Environmental Tax Reform: A Policy for Green Growth (2011) and was the lead author of the EEA reports Towards a green economy in Europe EU environmental policy targets and objectives 2010-2050 (2013) and Resource-efficient green economy and EU policies (2014). 

Photo of Christian Valenduc Christian Valenduc

Senior Advisor, Belgian Ministry of Finance

Christian VALENDUC has a master in Economics degree, (University of Namur, Belgium). He joined the studies department of the Federal Ministry of Finance in Belgium in 1986. He is now Head of the Unit in charge of Tax Policy analysis and Revenue forecasting. He also leads the Secretariat of the Tax division of the High Council of Finance, an advisory group of experts for the Minister of Finance.

He chaired the OECD Working Party on Tax policy Analysis and Tax statistics from 2000 to 2009. Christian VALENDUC is also Professor at the Universities of Louvain-La-Neuve and Namur. Most of his publications relate to tax policy analysis issues.


Photo_Ann Van den Cruyce

Ann Van den Cruyce

Head, Division of Employment, Depatment of Work and Social Economy, Flemish Government, LEED Vice-Chair

Ann Van den Cruyce is Head of the Labour Market Policy Division in the department of Work and Social Economy of the Flemish Government, since 2001. She works in close cooperation with the Flemish ministers responsible for Work and Social Economy and different agencies (among them PES Flanders) in order to prepare or adjust policy initiatives.

She is a Belgian national and has a background in applied research and statistical, staff and management functions within the Flemish government.

Prior to joining the Flemish government she worked as a researcher for the Research Institute for Labour and Society. She holds a MA in Commercial and Financial Sciences from the Flemish Economical High School (nowadays High School – University Brussels).

Currently she is Vice-Chair of the OECD LEED committee.


Closing remarks by Rintaro Tamaki, OECD Deputy Secretary-General

Ladies and gentlemen, 

Ladies and gentlemen, distinguished delegates,

We talk a lot here at the OECD about policies. Policies, of course, are ultimately about people. And as we have seen at this Forum, green growth policies imply some very significant social challenges, raising important questions about inclusiveness.

Effective policies to address possible negative or inequitable impacts on jobs, income and households require expertise that are too often isolated in Finance, Labour, Social Affairs, Environment and Regional Affairs Ministries. The strength of the GGSD Forum is that it unites experts from the diverse range of disciplines relevant to green growth. I trust the collaborative platform it offers has helped you to explore how governments might better tackle distributional impacts for more effective, equitable policy.

We’ve heard the detailed outcomes of the Forum from Simon Upton and the facilitators of today’s parallel sessions. I want to leave you with three overarching messages on promoting inclusive green growth...

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 ‌Photo of Deputy SG Rintaro Tamaki

Programme Documents Speakers Presentations Photos Media

Simon Upton_GGSDF 2014 scene setting




Photo of S. Scarpetta, M. Durand and G. Nicoletti at the GG-SD Forum 2014.



Photo of Andrew Leicester at Green Growth and Sustainable Development Forum 2014




Photo of John Atherton, chair of Session 2, GGSDF 2014



‌ Photo of Guy Preston at the GG-SD Forum 2014




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Participants at GGSDF 2014



 Photo of Russel Mills at GGSD Forum 2014



Photo of GGSD Forum Session 1 stage



 Photo of Rintaro Tamaki at GGSD Forum 2014



Conference Presentations and Remarks


Scene setting session: Going for inclusive green growth in an increasingly unequal world

- Opening remarks by Simon Upton, Director, Environment Directorate, OECD

- Presentations:

-  Session 1 (Joint Session with the International Energy Agency): Energy Sector Reform and its impact on households

  • Chair:  
    Dominique Bureau, Deputy Director, French Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy

- Panel Discussion:

-  Session 2 (Joint Session with the Employment, Labour and Social Affairs Committee (ELSAC) and the Committee on Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED): Inclusive labour markets for green growth, national and local perspectives

- Wrap-Up: 

  • Ann Van den Cruyce, Head, Division of Employment, Department of Work and Social Economy, Flemish Government, LEED Vice-Chair


- Plenary Session

- Scene setting:

  • Annabella Rosemberg, Policy Officer, Trade Union Advisory Committee to the OECD (TUAC)
  • Russel Mills, Global Director of Energy and Climate Change Policy, The Dow Chemical Company; Chair, Business and Industry Advisory Committee to the OECD (BIAC) Environment Committee

- Facilitators:

- Parallel Sessions

Group 1: Active labour market and skills policies for green growth: Joint Session with the International Labour Organization (ILO)

- Facilitator:

  • Peter Poschen, Director, Enterprises Department, International Labour Organization

- Discussion leaders: 

Group 2: Social protection and redistribution policies for green growth

- Facilitator:

- Discussion leaders: 

- Closing Session

- Chair: 

  • Simon Upton, Director, Environment Directorate, OECD

- Closing Remarks

Programme Documents Speakers Presentations Photos Media

Browse a selection of photos from the Forum on Flickr:  

Programme Documents Speakers Presentations Photos Media

» Browse general OECD photos at and videos on

» Stay tuned on Twitter: #OECD_ENV      » Use the hashtag: #GGSDForum


About the Green Growth and Sustainable Development (GG-SD) Forum 

The GG-SD Forum is an OECD initiative aimed at providing a dedicated space for multi-disciplinary dialogue on green growth and sustainable development. It brings together experts from different policy fields and disciplines working in these areas, and provides them with an interactive platform to encourage discussion, facilitate the exchange of knowledge and ease the exploitation of potential synergies. It addresses the horizontal and multi-disciplinary aspects of green growth and sustainable development and so supplements the cross-cutting work in individual government departments and ministries. The Forum operates as an annual event which may take the form of a conference, a workshop or a seminar.

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See also: 

- Green Growth and Sustainable Development 

Investment for Green Growth

Energy for Green Growth


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