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Public Private Partnerships for Critical Infrastructures Resilience in Finland

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Type of organisation: National Emergency Supply Agency

Country: Finland

Level of government: Central government

Type of practice: Process

Type of hazard or threat:

Risk management theme: Risk prevention & mitigation

The National Emergency Supply Agency (NESA), created in 1993, is tasked with planning, developing and maintaining the security of supply in Finland. While its historic role of maintaining reserve stockpiles to protect the livelihoods of the population as well as the functioning of the economy remains part of its strategic tasks, NESA is more and more active in mainstreaming business continuity and resilience in various sectors of the economy through public-private partnerships. NESA has established a network of thematic clusters where key stakeholders of critical sectors, such as: food supply, energy, transportation, health or industry, develop partnerships in order to assess vulnerability and performance and plan for resilience. NESA also proposes dedicated tools, such as information systems, storage and transport facilities to support business continuity on these domains. NESA also finances specific activities related to business continuity and critical infrastructure protection. The agency prepares annual reports that evaluate the performance of companies in the critical sectors including ranking and specific recommendations.

Why the good practice was developed

Finland faces specific vulnerabilities regarding the disruption of supply chains and critical infrastructures which constitute a major challenge. Harsh winter conditions, high dependence on sea transportation and international markets, interdependencies and the complexity of critical networks are among the key challenges to security of supplies in Finland. Consequently, Finland has invested significant efforts to secure supplies and maintain continuity of services. This is a primary concern of its Security Strategy for Society, in which the functioning of the economy and the infrastructure is one of the seven vital functions of Finnish society. NESA contributes to the implementation of the functioning of society in times of crisis by keeping reserve stockpiles but also by guiding critical infrastructure providers the necessary knowledge about preparedness and continuity planning.


  • Securing supplies to ensure the continuity of the economic activities and the functioning of critical infrastructure in cases of serious disturbances and exceptional circumstances;

  • Setting-up private-public partnerships as the primary method for securing supply and developing business continuity;

  • Implementing technical and financial measures to support the development of business continuity efforts across society production of goods and services necessary in exceptional conditions.



Service quality


User satisfaction

Results not available yet


  • Increased public-private partnerships with companies in critical sectors (now more than 1000) which all yielded a business continuity plan specific to their activities and sector;

  • Established 7 thematic clusters and dedicated pools to discuss and implement sector-specific supply security and business continuity policies;

  • Developed the HUOVI portal and the SOPIVA project as continuity-management tools designed to support organizations in their continuity management efforts.

Lessons Learned

  • Public bodies within countries should not take full responsibility to maintain the continuity of services, but also the private sector should invest some efforts into preparedness in order to achieve a whole-of-society approach of risk prevention

  • Incentivising private sector’s efforts in business continuity is essential to facilitate their involvement in these efforts. Evaluating the performance of individual companies is a complementary and efficient way to stir progress.

  • As security of supplies and continuity of critical infrastructures is market-dependant, specific attention to issues related to fair competition, non-discrimination and equal treatment are fundamental when designing policies