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Reports


  • 20-May-2022

    English

    Companion Document to the OECD Recommendation on Children in the Digital Environment

    The OECD Recommendation on Children in the Digital Environment provides guidance for governments and other stakeholders on putting in place policies and procedures to empower and protect children in the digital environment. The Recommendation was developed in recognition that the digital environment is a fundamental part of children’s daily lives, and that strong policy frameworks are needed to both protect children from any potential harm, and to help them realise the opportunities that it can bring. This companion document aims to assist governments and other stakeholders in implementing the Recommendation. It expands upon the context in which the Recommendation was developed, and considers in detail specific aspects of the Recommendation, in particular different stakeholders and their roles (e.g. parents, governments, digital service providers) as well as key underlying concepts such as children’s privacy, digital literacy and child safety by design.
  • 19-May-2022

    English

    Promoting Start-Ups and Scale-Ups in Denmark’s Sector Strongholds and Emerging Industries

    Start-ups and scale-ups often make outsized contributions to innovation and job creation. However, while entrepreneurial ecosystems in countries and regions are increasingly studied, less is known about differences by sector. What role do start-ups and scale-ups play in the development of different future growth sectors? What problems and bottlenecks does government policy need to address? To what extent do the start-up and scale-up contributions and obstacles vary by sector, and what is in common across sectors? This report examines the entrepreneurial ecosystems of three of Denmark's sector strongholds, sectors where future growth is likely to be generated - advanced production, energy technology and food and bio resources. A focus on Denmark includes the scale and nature of start-ups and scale-ups in different sectors, the bottlenecks, the current policies and how they can be refined. In addition, nine international policy experiences are presented as inspiring practices for Denmark and other countries - covering Austria, Canada, Finland, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Recommendations are offered for Denmark across areas such as entrepreneurial finance, networks, public procurement, and cluster management organisations, covering both cross-sector and sector-specific recommendations.
  • 18-May-2022

    English

    Towards Agile ICT Procurement in the Slovak Republic - Good Practices and Recommendations

    Procurement of information and communication technologies (ICT) plays a decisive role not only in public-service delivery but in public-sector modernisation. This report takes stock of current ICT procurement practices in the Slovak Republic and provides evidence-based strategic policy advice for the Slovak Government on how to adopt more innovative and agile approaches in ICT procurement. It presents examples from OECD countries on ICT procurement reforms and the use of innovative, flexible approaches for public procurement of ICT.
  • 17-May-2022

    English

    Illicit Trade in Conflict-affected Countries of the Middle East and North Africa - Focus on Yemen

    To contribute to the existing pool of evidence on the dynamic interplay between illicit trade and armed conflicts, this report looks at illicit trade flows in four separate conflict-affected countries in the MENA region: Iraq, Libya, Syria and Yemen. For the case of Yemen, the report also presents a deep-dive analysis of illicit trade flows and the relevant governance environment. The findings highlight that illicit trade networks in these countries are dynamic, complex, and heavily integrated into regional and global networks.
  • 16-May-2022

    English

    Enhancing the Oversight Impact of Chile’s Supreme Audit Institution - Applying Behavioural Insights for Public Integrity

    The impact of the work of supreme audit institutions (SAIs) largely depends on the ability and willingness of the audited entities to implement the changes suggested in the audit reports issued by the SAIs. Applying behavioural insights (BI) can help SAIs promote the uptake of their audit reports and recommendations. BI is a perspective based on psychology, cognitive science, and social science that takes into account how humans actually make choices, and can be used to help design better policies. The report analyses how the SAI of Chile, the Comptroller General of the Republic (CGR), produces audit reports and monitors their follow-up. Based on this analysis, the report identifies and discusses challenges hampering the timely follow-up and identifies opportunities to use behavioural insights to address them. Ultimately, a behaviourally informed review of the auditing and follow-up process could help significantly improve the added value of the CGR’s work and thus the effectiveness and efficiency of the public administration in Chile.
  • 11-May-2022

    English

    OECD Sovereign Borrowing Outlook 2022

    This edition of the OECD Sovereign Borrowing Outlook reviews the impact of the COVID-19 crisis for sovereign borrowing needs, funding conditions and funding strategies as well as outstanding debt for 2020 and 2021, and provides projections for 2022 for the OECD area. It discusses public debt management efforts to support government Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) agendas through investor relations and ESG-labelled sovereign bonds, and identifies strategic challenges and key elements of good practices in light of country experiences. It also examines the recent developments and trends in debt issuance by governments of emerging market and developing economies, and presents various challenges, priorities and opportunities for sovereign debt management in these economies.
  • 6-May-2022

    English

    Promoting Integrity through the Reform of the Administrative Penalty System of Bulgaria - Building a Comprehensive and Coherent Legal Framework

    This report analyses Bulgaria's legal framework for administrative penalties. Administrative penalties are crucial for ensuring accountability in the public administration. The report assesses the subjective scope of their application, the typologies and levels of administrative penalties, and the proceedings for applying them. The report highlights relevant good practices from other EU Member States, and provides recommendations on how to address key challenges as well as legislative proposals for building a comprehensive legal framework.
  • 27-April-2022

    English

    The Short and Winding Road to 2030 - Measuring Distance to the SDG Targets

    The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development has an unprecedented ambition, but also confronts countries with an enormous challenge given the complex and integrated nature of the Agenda with its 17 Goals, underpinned by 169 Targets. To assist national governments with their implementation, the OECD has developed a unique methodology allowing comparison of progress across SDG goals and targets, and also over time. Based on the Global indicator framework for the Sustainable Development Goals and leveraging UN and OECD data, this report provides a high-level assessment of OECD Member countries’ performance across the Goals and Targets of the 2030 Agenda. The report evaluates the distance that OECD countries need to travel to meet SDG targets for which data is currently available, but it goes one step further and deepens the analysis by identifying long-term trends, considering also how these trends may be impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. By providing a high-level overview of countries’ strengths and weaknesses in performance across the SDGs, it aims to support Member countries in navigating the SDGs and in setting their own priorities for action within the broad 2030 Agenda.
  • 26-April-2022

    English

    Africa’s Urbanisation Dynamics 2022 - The Economic Power of Africa’s Cities

    This report provides a new perspective on Africa’s urban economies that is unique in its breadth and level of detail. Based on data from more than 4 million individuals and firms in 2 600 cities across 34 countries, it presents compelling evidence that urbanisation contributes to better economic outcomes and higher living standards. It shows that across most socio-economic dimensions, cities significantly outperform the countries in which they are located. In Africa, urbanisation accounts for approximately 30% of the growth in per capita gross domestic product (GDP) over the past 20 years. Importantly, the gains from urbanisation on economic performance and quality of life extend beyond city boundaries, also benefiting rural areas. The report also shows that transnational clusters of cities are emerging along coasts as well as inland, offering new opportunities for economic development. Based on these findings, the report sets forth policy priorities at national and local levels that are essential to realise the potential of urbanisation. Among these, it argues that the role of cities should be fully anchored in national development planning. Moreover, local governments need greater fiscal and administrative capacity to become key actors in economic development.
  • 25-April-2022

    English

    Assessing Tax Compliance and Illicit Financial Flows in South Africa

    Illicit financial flows (IFFs) such as tax evasion are a major policy challenge for developing and emerging economies, in particular as the COVID-19 pandemic has drained domestic resources. This report presents results from a joint project between the OECD and the National Treasury of South Africa, which assesses tax compliance and IFFs in South Africa. The report provides an overview of macroeconomic, tax and fiscal developments in South Africa since the global financial crisis. It discusses the concepts of IFFs, how they relate to the South African context and provides an overview of South Africa’s participation in multilateral initiatives to combat tax evasion. It also provides a quantitative analysis of tax compliance and IFFs over time amid a variety of tax transparency initiatives implemented in South Africa. Finally, the report examines the effectiveness of tax transparency initiatives such as voluntary disclosure programmes, and looks into income and wealth characteristics of applicants to these programmes.
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