Obtaining a passport at the South Jakarta Immigration Office often proved to be a slow and cumbersome process. It was prone to corruption, cronyism and the use of middlemen. With this in mind, a modernisation and simplification programme was initiated, which redesigned core business processes when obtaining a passport. These changes were accompanied by the introduction of e-tools and different management models for holistic change. Furthermore cooperation with the BNI Bank was initiated. Different surveys all highlight the improvements the South Jakarta Immigration Office has demonstrated since the introduction of this programme.
Why the innovation was developed
Given a passport’s importance, passport delivery as a key public service product has undergone heightened scrutiny in Indonesia. The immigration office faced an increasing number of applicants and service users. The main sources of discontent (aired via social media outlets and traditional printing media) prior to 2012 concerned the process of obtaining a passport: the practice of middlemen was a common feature, as well as time-consuming waiting hours and bureaucratic uncertainty of the time of completion. Underlying reasons for these problems were:
A previously developed online application had not been socialised effectively, thus many applicants would still use walk-in services, thereby prolonging the business process and incentivising the use of middlemen.
The queueing number was handed out manually rather than automatically, leading to disputes amongst people trying to access the service.
There was no adequate way of checking up on the status of the passport application, thus creating unpredictability for the end user.
Enhance public trust, Improve effectiveness, Improve efficiency, Improve service quality, Improve user satisfaction
To improve and accelerate the business process of obtaining a passport.
To create certainty and predictability with regards to the status of an application.
To eradicate the practise of middlemen.
To enhance accountability and limit the dangers of corruption by introducing online banking tools.
General population, Government bodies, Government staff
The end clients using the services of the Immigration office to obtain passports.
There was an increase in the number of users for online applications for passports: 2012 - 45 000 online applications2013 - 55 000 online applicationsThis reflects the improved ease for the end-user in comparison to walk-in services.
There was a decrease in the use of middlemen, thereby lowering the transaction costs for clients to use passport services. This in turn increased the accessibility of the services.
The introduction of a firm "first in first serve"policy has received been widely appreciated. In combination with an electronic queueing system it has increased the reliability and predictability of services in the office. Evidence for this was a better perception among the public of the service's transparency, as indicated in the Integrity Index by the KPK.
The Community satisfaction index (IKM) demonstrated an increase in the level of satisfaction of the public with the services offered at the Immigration office:2012 - 70% user satisfaction2013 - 75% user satisfaction The Index measured amongst others satisfaction with service procedures; satisfaction with discipline, politeness and capability of employees; the speed of processes; adequacy of payment possibilities; certainty of service costs and schedule.
Results not available yet
The reshaping and simplification of internal business processes for obtaining passports for the Immigration Office was proposed by internal staff.
Stakeholders who participated in this were: - The general public who give input through social media; - Vice Minister of Law and Human Rights through an informal meeting and discussion with the management and staff of the South Jakarta Immigration Office; - Heads of Directorate General of the Immigration Office, as well as wider staff. - The BNI Bank which specifically conducted a joint design business process for passport payment through the bank.
Based on inputs from public participation channels, such as social media, and also management’s commitment to improve the business process of passport completion, the implementation stages were:
The new queueing system was developed using a combination of electronic devices and the method of multichanneling. This divided passport applicants into three groups, namely individual arrivals, online applicants and those applying through service bureaus.
The online application tool, which was introduced to the South Jakarta Immigration Office in 2010, was further refined and socialised. Therefore, applicants do not have to bring documents to the office in person anymore. After completing forms electronically, the applicants can go directly to the office to take a photo and conduct the interview.
To reduce queueing at the immigration payment counter, banking payment through the BNI Bank was made available. This was a significant breakthrough not only in speeding up the business process, but also in curtailing the possibilities for corruption. Payment through the BNI Bank was conducted on a host-to-host basis, meaning the passport application network was linked with the BNI Bank network for confirmation of applicants’ data. This meant that the clients' applications could be processed without them having to be there physically.
Improvement of office infrastructure by increasing the capacity of the waiting and service rooms for further comfort.
Two passport service branches with subsequent offices were opened in order to reduce the number of applicants concentrated in one office, and to increase outreach to the public.
The financial resources for this innovation were provided through the South Jakarta immigration Office’s official budget (DIPA). The budget had to be approved by the Ministry of Law and Human Rights.
Main challenges when implementing this innovation were around the willingness and capability of staff to work with a new system and change the status quo working culture. To mitigate this and provide a better understanding of the innovation, informally, a socialisation and “coffee morning” session was held every Friday morning before the opening of the office.
Potential resistance to the new system among staff was mitigated formally through the introduction of reward and punishment incentivisation and elements of performance management.
Conditions for success
When adopting e-solutions for service delivery problems, the socialisation of the solution is of utmost importance and needs to be treated on par with the actual development of the solution. The same goes for the socialisation of new business processes, which might take staff out of their ‘comfort zone’, thereby increasing resistance. Informal and low-tone dialogue is more successful in getting everyone on board than the threat of sanctions and official rules and regulations.
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