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Development Co-operation Report 2021

Shaping a Just Digital Transformation

Digital transformation is revolutionising economies and societies with rapid technological advances in AI, robotics and the Internet of Things. Low- and middle-income countries are struggling to gain a foothold in the global digital economy in the face of limited digital capacity, skills, and fragmented global and regional rules. Political stability, democracy, human rights and equality also risk being undermined by weak governance and the abuse of digital technology. The 2021 edition of the Development Co-operation Report makes the case for choosing to hardwire inclusion into digital technology processes, and emerging norms and standards. Providing the latest evidence and policy analysis from experts in national governments, international organisations, academia, business and civil society, the report equips international development organisations with the latest guidance and good practices that put people and the sustainable development goals at the centre of digital transformation.

Published on December 21, 2021Also available in: French

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface
Foreword
Editorial
Reader’s guide
Abbreviations and acronyms
Executive summary
Development co-operation is key to shaping a just digital transformation (infographic)
Overview: Powering an inclusive digital future
Methodological notes Development Co-operation at a Glance 2021
Digital realities in low- and middle-income countries9 chapters available
In my view: The promises, pitfalls and potential of global technology governance
Digital drivers of inclusive growth in Africa and Latin America and the Caribbean
Case study: Regional integration can accelerate Africa’s digital transformation
Cultivating new capacities, the case of e-commerce
Tackling digital disadvantage with people-centred policies
Case study: Digital platforms can boost earnings of women entrepreneurs
Managing inclusive digital transformation, lessons from 100 countries
Determining national priorities in the 4th industrial revolution
Case study: Digital Citizenship or Digital Authoritarianism?
Policies to maximise gains and reduce risks14 chapters available
In my view: To tackle disinformation, we must uphold freedom of opinion and expression
Agile, comprehensive and principles-based: Policy making for a digital age
Case study: Combatting cyber threats, disinformation, and Internet shutdowns
Making the leap from e-government to digital government
Case study: Benin and Estonia’s e-government partnership
Case study: Knowledge sharing on user-centred digital citizen services: Colombia’s experience
Taxing digital economies
Seizing opportunities for digital trade
Case study: Planning for the future of work
Case study: Is gig work decent work?
Case study: Fostering formal work with digital tools
Bridging energy gaps with digital solutions
Case study: The digital device life cycle: From mining to e-waste
Case study: Optimising tools and partnerships for resilience
Hardwiring inclusion into digital transformation12 chapters available
In My View: Artificial intelligence and data analytics can unlock new economic opportunities
Practical solutions to connect the last mile
Beyond the basics: Quality, speed, affordability, relevance
Case study: Connecting every school in the world to the Internet
Digital ecosystems components every country needs
Digital public goods: Enablers of digital sovereignty
Overcoming exclusion in digital economies
Case study: Digital payments enabling financial inclusion
Creating a level playing field for data protection
Reusing data responsibly to achieve development goals
Case study: Digital transformation of public health systems
Reshaping social media: From persuasive technology to collective intelligence
Development co-operation strategies and financing approaches10 chapters available
A snapshot of bilateral digital development strategies
Case study: USAID promotes co‑ordinated investments in digital systems for better health outcomes
Case study: The Netherlands’ inclusive and human rights-based approach with civil society
Case study: KOICA’s dual approach to digitalisation
Case study: Norway’s strategic process to capitalise on the potential of new technology
Case study: Leaving no one behind in a digital world: the United Kingdom’s Digital Access Programme
Case study: Digital-by-default: A new concept in Germany’s development co-operation
Measuring official development finance for digitalisation
Financing options for the future of digital
Case study: Insights from CDC on catalysing commercial investment
Development co-operation providers at a glance50 chapters available
Development co-operation financing trends
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Belgium
Canada
Colombia
Costa Rica
Croatia
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
European Union institutions
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Kazakhstan
Korea
Kuwait
Latvia
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Qatar
Romania
Saudi Arabia
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Other Official Providers Reporting at the Aggregate Level to the OECD
Other Official Providers not Reporting to the OECD
Private philanthropic providers reporting to the OECD34 chapters available
Arcadia Fund
Arcus Foundation
BBVA Microfinance Foundation
Bernard van Leer Foundation
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Carnegie Corporation of New York
Charity Projects Ltd (Comic Relief)
Children’s Investment Fund Foundation
Citi Foundation
Conrad N. Hilton Foundation
Ford Foundation
Gatsby Charitable Foundation
Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation
Grameen Crédit Agricole Foundation
H&M Foundation
Ikea Foundation
Jacobs Foundation
John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation
La Caixa Banking Foundation
Laudes Foundation
Lego Foundation
Margaret A. Cargill Foundation
MasterCard Foundation
MAVA Foundation
McKnight Foundation
MetLife Foundation
Michael and Susan Dell Foundation
Oak Foundation
Omidyar Network Fund, Inc.
Rockefeller Foundation
United Postcode Lotteries
Wellcome Trust
William and Flora Hewlett Foundation
World Diabetes Foundation
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