Illustrative examples of IO Practices: Implementation

A number of specific practices undertaken by IOs provide illustrative examples of the trends and experiences described throughout the Compendium. Below are a selection of implementation practices under collection, which will be featured more in detail in the final Compendium.

Assistance mechanisms


IO Name & Practice Brief Description
BIPM, Capacity Building and Knowledge Transfer Programme The Capacity Building and Knowledge Transfer (CBKT) Programme encompasses a range of activities designed to help the worldwide metrology community obtain, strengthen and maintain the capabilities needed to fulfil its missions and objectives. The CBKT Programme involves three core sets of activity, including capacity building initiatives (covering areas of vital importance to Member States), topic-based initiatives (relying on external sponsorship and focussed on specific areas), and knowledge-transfer initiatives (carried out by BIPM staff, visiting scientists from NMIs/DIs, as well as groups assembled from around the world and focussed on laboratory-based projects). These are delivered through dedicated workshops, laboratory placements, and remote-learning online training exercises. 
Codex Alimentarius (Joint WHO/FAO Food Standards Programme), CODEX Trust Fund FAO / WHO have established the Codex Trust Fund to promote strengthening of countries’ capacities to participate in Codex work and to use the standards. 
IEA, Emergency Response Exercise (ERE) The Emergency Response Exercise (ERE) is the primary tool with which the IEA trains country delegates on matters related to its co-ordinated emergency response system, to ensure an effective response in the event of a major crisis.
IFAC, Approach to Advancing Accountancy Education at the Global Level Through its Approach to Advancing Accountancy Education at the Global Level, IFAC assists professional accountancy organisations and other key stakeholders in creating future-ready professional accountants. This brings together and is informed by an International Panel on Accountancy Education, representing key stakeholders and the major regions of the world and contributing advice, access and advocacy. This assistance mechanism is designed primarily to support the implementation of the International Education Standards (IES), through capacity-building, providing thought leadership, commissioning research, and advocacy of quality accountancy education. 
IFRC, Organisational Capacity Assessment and Certification (OCAC) for National Societies The Organisational Capacity Assessment and Certification (OCAC) for National Societies enables members to assess their own organisational capacity, performance and relevance in their country to determine opportunities for self-development; and to ensure that all National Societies commit and comply with a comprehensive set of organisational minimal standards and thus to protect/improve the performance of the overall Federation network.
IFRC, Compliance and Mediation Committee The IFRC Constitution provides for a Compliance and Mediation Committee, which can give advice on compliance and integrity issues, resolve any potential breaches of integrity on the part of a National Society and review, investigate and determine the nature and extent of any breach of integrity
ITU Programmes for Technical Assistance The ITU maintains various programmes for technical assistance, surveys, guidance and support for its Member States to help promote understanding and implementation of its standards. ITU carries out technical assistance, capacity-building and the development of skills locally in a number of developing countries through workshops, and seminars. ITU holds World and Regional Radiocommunication Seminars to inform members of the latest revisions to the Radio Regulations and the regulatory procedures for filing information on new radio systems. ITU also works on ‘Bridging the Standardization Gap’.
IUCN Workshops to support the implementation of IUCN standards Workshops to support the implementation of IUCN standards. The Union routinely carries out workshops and other capacity building activities to support its Members and other constituents in the use and application of its various standards, including the Red List Categories and Criteria, Global Standard for the Identification of Key Biodiversity Areas, the Green List Sustainability Standard, among many others.
OIML, Legal Metrology e-Learning Platform The OIML provides various forms of assistance with the implementation of its international instruments. These include OIML Training Centres, the development of freely available e-Learning training modules and the co-ordination of international experts to provide more in-depth training through the Countries and Economies with Emerging Metrology Systems (CEEMS) program.


Suite of Capacity-Building Initiatives on Climate Change 1

Suite of Capacity-Building Initiatives on Climate Change 2

The UNFCCC has spearheaded a number of initiatives to build capacity among Parties and non-Party stakeholders on law and governance approaches towards implementing the provisions of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement. This involves a suite of outreach efforts including side-events, workshops, e-learning modules, webinars and publications. This has resulted in consistent and topical engagement, the identification of gaps and sectoral spaces in which interventions can be effectively mobilised to support the implementation of instruments. Provisions underpinning these activities are embedded in Article 6 of the UNFCCC, Article 10(e)(b) of the Kyoto Protocol, and Article 12 of the Paris Agreement
UNCITRAL, Case Law on UNCITRAL Texts (CLOUT) Database The Case Law on UNCITRAL Texts (CLOUT) is a searchable database of court decisions and arbitral awards on UNCITRAL texts.  The Transparency Registry is a repository for information and documents in treaty-based investor-State arbitration.
WCO, Mercator Programme The WCO Mercator Programme supports its members’ implementation of the World Trade Organization (WTO) Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA), through capacity building based on WCO instruments and tools.
WIPO, Technical Assistance for Member States WIPO’s technical assistance for Member States covers the full spectrum of IP rights and includes the development of national IP strategies, providing policy and legislative advice, and offering business solutions for IP offices to enable them to participate in the global IP system. The framework of the WIPO Development Agenda facilitates and encourages implementation in a broader sense, such as the National IP Academies which enable Member States to create their own self-sustaining IP training infrastructure. WIPO’s technical assistance webpage provides a comprehensive overview of the range of technical assistance activities by theme and country, with a roster of the consultants leading such assistance and access to relevant studies.

Compliance mechanisms


IO Practice Brief Description
IFAC, Member Compliance Program

The IFAC Member Compliance Program gives the example of a practice promoting the adoption and implementation of international standards on private and public sector accounting, auditing, ethics, and education, as well as the establishment of related quality assurance and enforcement mechanisms. It helps IFAC Members and Associates demonstrate that they are meeting IFAC requirements and continuing to strengthen the global accountancy profession. Recently, in 2019, data collected through this Program led to the development of the 2019 Global Status Report, which establishes the first baseline for global adoption status of international standards. IFAC’s Global Impact Map  reflects real time updates of adoption status.

ILAC Mutual Recognition Arrangement (ILAC MRA)

ILAC maintains a Mutual Recognition Arrangement (ILAC MRA) that provides technical underpinning and a demonstration of competence, via the use of international standards and ongoing peer evaluation and assessment, in the accredited conformity assessment bodies that delivers confidence in the acceptance of results.
The ILAC MRA supports the provision of local or national services, such as providing safe food and clean drinking water, providing energy, delivering health and social care or maintaining an unpolluted environment as well as enhancing the acceptance of products across national borders.

ILO, Committee on the Application of Standards of the International Labour Conference (CAS) The ILO’s Committee on the Application of Standards of the International Labour Conference (CAS) is a permanent tripartite (governments, workers and employers) body of the International Labour Conference and an essential component of the ILO supervisory system. Following the technical and independent examination of government reports carried out by a legal body, the Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations, the CAS procedure offers the representatives of governments, employers and workers the opportunity to undertake a joint examination of the manner in which ILO Members States comply with their obligations deriving from the ILO Conventions they have ratified. The CAS is thus responsible for determining the extent to which international labour standards are given effect at the national level and to report to the annual ILO International Labour Conference. 
ITU Radiocommunications Board The ITU monitors the status of ratification and accession to ITU treaties. The Radiocommunications Board (RRB) approves the ITU Rules of Procedure in applying the provisions of the Radio Regulations (RRs) and registering frequency assignments and investigates and resolves cases of potential interference. The RRB also serves as an appeals body for ITU Member States seeking redress on matters related to the infringement of their rights afforded under the RRs.
OECD, National Contact Points (NCPs) for Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises Adherents to the Decision on the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises are required to set up a National Contact Point (NCP): one function of the NCP is to receive submissions from individuals or civil society about the alleged non-observance of the Guidelines by enterprises in specific instances.
OZONE Secretariat, Implementation Committee Under the Non-Compliance Procedure for the Montreal Protocol OZONE’s Implementation Committee under the Non-Compliance Procedure for the Montreal Protocol represents an example of a body which reviews non-compliance with the core instrument of the organisation. This occurs in particular through receiving, considering, and reporting on any submission by parties in connection with the preparation of reports on the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances, and acting on any other information received and forwarded by the Secretariat concerning compliance with the provisions of the Protocol.
PIC/s, Compliance Programme PIC/s runs a Compliance Programme which encompasses both the assessment of Applicants for accession and the periodical review of existing Members. This involves a gap analysis as well as a review of the GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) inspection system against PIC/S requirements, undertaken by a dedicated assessment team under the monitoring of the PIC/S Subcommittee on Compliance (SCC). The gap analysis and review is done according to standardised procedures and tools, which include a qualitative review of the documentation and an on-site assessment visit of the country to ensure that policies and procedures, as prescribed by PIC/S, are effectively applied. Compliance is verified against 78 indicators (critical, very important and important). To be considered as equivalent, Members and Applicants must comply with all indicators. The primary objective is to ensure initial and continued compliance of potential and current Members with PIC/s requirements. 

SIECA, Central American Trade Dispute Settlement Mechanism (MSC)

Pursuant to Legal Resolution No. 170-2006 (COMIECO-XLIX), SIECA manages the Central American Trade Dispute Settlement Mechanism (MSC), to support a rules-based approach through a dispute settlement mechanism based on that of WTO and various FTAs. The Secretariat’s role is mainly administrative, assisting diplomatic and arbitration phases of the process. The process has an optional, diplomatic phase in addition to consultations and arbitration, where the dispute is submitted to the Council of Ministers for Economic Integration of Central America (COMIECO) (Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica & Panama). This promotes a general assessment of the implementation and compliance with specific provisions of economic community law. SIECA also provides technical assistance in support of the MSC, and co-ordinates stakeholder participation. 
UNFCCC, Compliance Committee The UNFCCC process comprises a Compliance Committee under the Kyoto Protocol as well as The Paris Agreement's committee to facilitate implementation and promote compliance.  The Kyoto Protocol Compliance Committee is made up of two branches: a facilitative branch and an enforcement branch. The facilitative branch aims to provide advice and assistance to Parties in order to promote compliance, whereas the enforcement branch has the responsibility to determine consequences for Parties not meeting their commitments. The Paris Agreement Implementation and Compliance Committee (PAICC) was established under Article 15, paragraphs 1 and 2, of the Paris Agreement. Its role is to facilitate implementation of and promote compliance with the provisions of the Paris Agreement. It is guided by principles in Article 15 and paragraphs 1 to 4 of the annex to decision 20/CMA.1, including that it shall function in a manner that is transparent, non-adversarial and non-punitive and paying attention to the respective national capabilities and circumstances of Parties.
WADA, Compliance Programme One of the core activities of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) is to operate a Compliance Programme, which monitors and aims to ensure the adherence of Signatories to the World Anti-Doping Code (the principal instrument of the organisation) and its supporting International Standards. WADA’s Signatories include International Federations (IFs), National Anti-Doping Organizations (NADOs), Major Event Organizations (MEOs) and National Olympic Committees (NOCs), among others. If a non-conformity with the Code is identified and not corrected throughout the process set out by the International Standard for Code Compliance by Signatories (ISCCS), WADA can assert non-compliance of the relevant Anti-Doping Organization (ADO) and impose sanctions. The ADO can dispute the assertion in front of the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS). Since 2017, over 10,000 corrective actions have been identified by WADA through its compliance programme and more than 6,000 of them have been implemented by ADOs to date. 

Advocacy mechanisms


IO Practice Brief Description
ASTM, Corporate Communication Department (CCD) ASTM International’s Corporate Communication Department (CCD) develops and implements information policies, tools and campaigns that help raise awareness of ASTM standards in the marketplace. These include newsletters and social media campaigns. Each technical committee is responsible for developing its own communication campaign aimed at attracting stakeholders and raising awareness on its standards portfolio.
BIPM-OIML, World Metrology Day World Metrology Day is the annual celebration of the signature of the Metre Convention on 20 May 1875. Each year, World Metrology Day is organised jointly by the BIPM and the OIML, with the participation of national metrology institutes and regional metrology organisations worldwide, and is used to promote the value of the work of the metrology community worldwide. 
ICN, Advocacy Working Group The ICN’s Advocacy Working Group work aims to undertake projects, develop practical tools and guidance, and facilitate experience-sharing among ICN member agencies, in order to improve the effectiveness of ICN members in advocating the dissemination of competition principles and to promote the development of a competition culture.
ILAC, Suite of Promotional Brochures ILAC develops and maintains a suite of promotional brochures to promote awareness and forge understanding of accreditation, and to support the implementation of its instruments. These outreach materials encompass the role of accreditation in supporting food safety and clean water, delivering energy, supporting health and social care, facilitating trade, and adding value to supply chains. The organisation also publishes documents underscoring the benefits of its core instrument, the ILAC Mutual Recognition Agreement (ILAC MRA), as well as an annual report summarising its primary activities undertaken.
ISO, ISO Communications Department ISO central secretariat has a communications department that frequently runs campaigns to promote the use of standards on specific topics/ in specific sectors. This is often to promote the release of a high-profile standard. Campaigns involve articles in the ISO magazine (ISO Focus), websites (example on services), videos, and social media (Facebook, Instagram, Twitter) and the materials are shared with ISO members so that they can do similar advocacy at national level. 

ITU, Comms and advocacy campaigns

The ITU seeks to raise awareness through a range of different campaigns about the importance of radiocommunication, telecommunication/ICT standards, connectivity and how these can be used to improve people’s lives. One example is World Telecommunication and Information Society Day (WTISD), which the ITU membership has celebrated each year on 17 May since 1969. In 2020, this event was based on the Connect 2030 Agenda. Based around a different theme each year, this Day is marked by events in many different ITU Member States.

Monitoring mechanisms


IO Practice Brief Description
CITES, Mandatory Reporting Requirements and Implementation Reports CITES has mandatory reporting mechanisms (CITES, 2020[76]) on trade in endangered species, containing a summary of information on, inter alia, the number and type of permits and certificates granted, the States with which such trade occurred, the quantities and types of specimens, and the names of species. A standing committee verifies countries which have not provided reports for three consecutive years. Based on this reporting, CITES develops Implementation Reports, which provide guidance on the legislative, regulatory and administrative measures that members can take to ensure the effective implementation of the Convention. It also outlines the distribution of responsibilities between members (submit structured information on progress in implementing the Convention) and the CITES Secretariat (collating and synthesising the information received).

IEA, Emergency Response Reviews (ERRs)

Emergency Response Reviews (ERRs) are periodic peer reviews of the emergency response policies of individual member countries to assess the readiness of each country to respond to an emergency. The review teams involve representatives from Members and are led by the IEA Secretariat. 
ILAC, ILAC/IAF Peer Evaluations ILAC in-conjunction with IAF conduct regular peer evaluations of the regional cooperation bodies that carry out the regular peer evaluations of the accreditation bodies that routinely assess the conformity assessment bodies. The outcomes from the evaluation and assessment activities are monitored to ensure ongoing implementation and compliance with the requirements.
ILO, Supervision Mechanism The ILO has Supervision Mechanism that examine the application of its instruments in member states and identify areas where they could be better applied. These offer an example of IO practice where information by a third party body is used. Indeed, comments by national and international organisations of employers and workers on the application of ratified Conventions are taken into account by regular ILO supervisory bodies. The ILO does not administer individual complaint procedures. 
IOSCO, Implementation monitoring reviews IOSCO conducts implementation monitoring reviews Thematic Reviews, which are intended to Provide a stimulus to members who have not implemented guidance to take steps to implement them; Provide a stimulus to understand the significance of any identified differences in approach and measures which may be developed to work with those differences; Identify examples of best (or good) practice in implementing the IOSCO Principles and Standards to assist other IOSCO members in implementation; and Identify areas in which IOSCO Principles and Standards may warrant revision or where further IOSCO work would be necessary (through the SCs and TFs).
ITU, Data collection The ITU collects data and statistics on the ICT market, ICT development, ICT prices and regulation through annual surveys. These data are made available publicly to many other international organisations, research institutions, universities and consultancies for statistical modelling and analysis. The ITU works closely with the OECD and other IOs on ICT statistics and measurement.
IUCN, Resolutions and Recommendations Database The IUCN Resolutions and Recommendations Database accompanies the catalogue of instruments with a series of progress reports, which outline those members and non-members who have adopted each instrument, a brief overview of the actions undertaken to facilitate its implementation, its concrete results and achievements, outstanding challenges and obstacles in implementing the instrument, and proposed reforms to address these. This is paralleled by Activity Reports, whereby individual adherents provide an account of their implementation efforts. 
OECD, Peer Review Process OECD peer review involve an examination of a country’s performance or practices in a particular area by other countries. They serve to ensure compliance with OECD standards and alignment with OECD best practices, thereby assisting the country under review in improving its legislation, policy and practices. They are a cornerstone of the OECD’s work and are used in several areas including the monitoring by the Working Group on Bribery in International Business Transactions, the Global Forum for Transparency and Exchange of Information and the Codes of Liberalisation.
OIE, OIE Observatory The OIE Observatory provides an example of a body set up to monitor implementation of OIE standards in a comprehensive manner, in order to target technical assistance needs and evaluate the effectiveness of OIE standards.
OTIF, Policy on the Monitoring and Assessment of Legal Instruments OTIF’s policy on the monitoring and assessment of legal instruments is under development and has been recommended for provisional application. The purpose of the policy is to ensure systematic monitoring and assessment of the implementation and application of OTIF legal instruments. The policy should be adopted at the next ordinary General Assembly in 2021. The draft policy is available on OTIF’s website.
Ozone Secretariat, Mandatory Annual Data Reporting The Montreal Protocol and all its amendments require mandatory annual data reporting to the Ozone Secretariat by each party on production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances. The information gathered through this reporting is made available in country profiles.
UNECE, Environmental Performance Review The Environmental Performance Review, carried out by the member States in the CEP. It is called a Peer Review because it is a review of one country by other countries, that is, a review among equals. During the Peer Review, countries focus on some of the major policy issues that have arisen during the EPR.
WMO, Steps to Promote a Culture of Compliance Guidelines related to the development of WMO provisions indicates that “it is essential to promote an enhanced culture of compliance” with the Technical Regulations among Members throughout the Organization” and recommends the following 4 steps: systematic notification of compliance by Members; establishment of a database containing Members’ compliance with the Technical Regulations; identification of “critical deviations“ (deficiencies); and feedback and support by the WMO Secretariat to Members in view of eliminating the deficiencies identified.
WTO, Trade Policy Reviews (TPRs) WTO Trade Policy Reviews (TPRs) include a detailed report written independently by the Trade Policy Review Division, a technical body within the WTO Secretariat. 
WADA, monitoring and compliance tools with the World anti-Doping Code

WADA has developed a wide range of tools to monitor members’ compliance with the World Anti-Doping Code. They include mandatory and voluntary reporting from members, on-site and desk audits, analysis of the global anti-doping database, investigations and the establishment of a whistle-blower platform. The information collected is analysed by a Compliance Taskforce, which gathers representatives from various WADA’s departments.
The monitoring process is defined in an International Standard adopted by WADA’s Executive Committee and is part of WADA’s ISO certified Code compliance monitoring programme.