What are the specific characteristics of innovation in pharmaceutical biotechnology?
How do biopharmaceutical innovation systems in OECD countries perform and which policies are suitable to foster performance?
This publication examines the innovation system in pharmaceutical biotechnology in eight OECD countries: Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway and Spain. It summarises the results of in-depth studies, providing a comparative analysis of participating countries' performance in science and innovation in biopharmaceuticals. It highlights specific characteristics of the national biopharmaceutical innovation systems in terms of their international openness and the specific role of demand-side factors in the innovation process. Major systemic failures affecting the functioning of the biopharmaceutical innovation systems are identified. Based on rich evidence, the report draws policy recommendations to foster innovation in biopharmaceuticals advocating an integrated policy approach.
This study forms part of a larger effort to compare innovation processes in different industry sectors and technological fields to provide policy guidance and to more fully elaborate the national innovation systems (NIS) approach to policy making.
ecutive Summary (English) - available for free download
Note de synthèse (French) - available for free download
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Summary of Country Studies:
Chapter 3. Comparison of Performance in National Biopharmaceutical Innovation Systems
Chapter 4. Openness of the Biopharmaceutical Innovation System
Chapter 5. Comparison of Selected Demand-side Factors
Chapter 6. Structure, Dynamics and Performance in National Biopharmaceutical Innovation Systems
Chapter 7. Systemic Imperfections in Biopharmaceutical Innovation Systems
Chapter 8. Policy Implications
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