Technologies émergentes

Biotechnology Statistics - United States



Collection/compilation agency: The National Science Foundation (NSF) (sponsor) and U.S. Census Bureau (collection agent)

Collection/compilation type: Survey of Industrial Research and Development.


  • R&D expenditure
  • Percentage of biotechnology R&D expenditure attributable to nanotechnology.

Scope: For-profit industrial firms with five or more employees that perform R&D in the 50 US states or D.C.

Frequency: Annual since 2001.

Periodicity: Annual.

Classification used: N/A for biotechnology data collection itself.  Generally, statistics resulting from the data collection are classified by the performing firms’ North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) code, size (based on number of employees), location (US state or country) of R&D performance, character of work, source of funding, and other classifiers.

Definition used: Biotechnology is the application of science and technology to living organisms, as well as parts, products, and models thereof, to alter living or nonliving materials for the production of knowledge, goods, and services including:

  • DNA technologies such as:
    – Genomics
    – Pharmacogenetics
    – Gene probes
    – DNA sequencing/synthesis/amplification
    – Genetic engineering
  • Protein and molecular technologies such as:
    – Protein/peptide sequencing/synthesis
    – Lipid/protein glycoengineering
    – Proteomics
    – Hormones
    – Growth factors
    – Cell receptors/signaling/ pheromones
  • Cell and tissue culture and engineering including:
    – Cell/tissue culture
    – Tissue engineering
    – Hybridization
    – Cellular fusion
    – Vaccine/immune stimulants
    – Embryo manipulation 
  • Process biotechnologies such as:
    – Bioreactors
    – Fermentation
    – Bioprocessing
    – Bioleaching
    – Biopulping
    – Biobleaching
    – Biodesulphurization
    – Bioremediation
    – Biofiltration
  • Subcellular organism research including:
    – Gene therapy
    – Viral vectors
  • Other biotechnology areas such as:
    – Bioinformatics
    – Nanobiotechnologies

Output: Tabulations in the annual report series Research and Development in Industry containing biotechnology R&D expenditures by industry and size of company (based on number of employees) and the percentage of biotechnology R&D expenditures attributable to nanotechnology.

Contact comments: Biotechnology R&D data are not extensively available from official statistics.  Government agencies, including the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the U.S. Census Bureau, are not able to document industry’s biotechnology R&D activities in greater detail for a variety of reasons, the most important being that biotechnology is not a separate industry code in the government’s North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) system.

Future plans (plans for new collections, strategies, experiences etc.):  Current level of data collection will be maintained while research into quality and utility of resulting statistics are evaluated.

Contact details:
Latest survey forms and instructions: The 2003 versions of the Form RD-1, Form RD-1A, and their instructions are available at:


Collection/compilation agency: US Department of Commerce, Technology Administration and Bureau of Industry and Security

Collection/compilation type:  Survey of US firms engaged in biotechnology activities, 2002.


  • Application focus, research activities and North American Industry Classification System codes
  • Demographic characteristics (e.g. location of operations and ownership)
  • Financial operations and investment (e.g. sales, operating costs and income, capital investments and export revenues)
  • Research and development expenditures and intellectual property protection
  • Employment (e.g, FTEs, occupations and foreign outsourcing)
  • Interactions with federal agencies (e.g, participation in government programs and contracting)
  • Impediments to business growth
  • Market and business conditions and projections.

Scope:  Survey data were collected from companies that engage in biotechnology research, create biotechnology products or research tools, and/or use biotechnology processes in their manufacturing   either as one of several business lines or as their sole business. Respondents whose business activities appeared to differ from the survey’s definition of biotechnology were not included in the final analysis.  (See definition below).

Data were obtained from public and privately traded companies and non-profit enterprises operating domestically that identified themselves as biotechnology firms or organizations. The survey was mailed to both US and foreign-owned businesses existing within the United States. Excluded from this study are government organizations, universities, and foreign businesses operating abroad.

Frequency: The survey was conducted in summer/fall of 2002.

Periodicity: N/A

Classification used: N/A

Definition used: Biotechnology was defined as the application of molecular and cellular processes to solve problems, conduct research, and create goods and services.  It includes a diverse collection of technologies that manipulate cellular, sub-cellular, or molecular components in living things to make products or discover new knowledge about the molecular and genetic basis of life, or to modify plants, animals and micro-organisms to carry desired traits.  Such technologies include, but are not limited to: genetic engineering (e.g. recombinant DNA, gene therapy, cloning, antisense); hybridoma technology (to produce monoclonal antibodies); polymerase chain reaction or PCR amplification; gene mapping; DNA sequencing; restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis; and protein engineering.

Output: The survey instrument and results were presented in a report entitled “A Survey of the Use of Biotechnology in U.S. Industry,” November 2003.


Contact comments: The Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, works to maximize technology's contribution to America's economic growth.

Future plans (plans for new collections, strategies, experiences etc.): It is uncertain whether future biotechnology surveys will be conducted. 

Contact details:

The survey is available in the publication at:


Collection/compilation agency: Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce 

Collection/compilation type:  Part of the 5-year Economic Census.


  • Number of establishments
  • Total revenue
  • Payroll
  • Number of employees.

Various additional information:

  • Class of customer
  • Revenue by type of research activity.

These data are by industry and geographic location.

Scope: All operating business locations in the United States with paid employees.

Frequency: Every 5 years.

Periodicity: Covers a 12-month calendar year for years ending in 2 and 7.

Classification used: North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) category 541710.

Definition used: No definition used.  Respondent self designates as engaged in “biotechnology research.”


Contact comments: N/A

Future plans (plans for new collections, strategies, experiences etc.): N/A

Contact details:
Copies of survey form PS-54109 available on:


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