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Publications & Documents


  • 18-October-2021

    English

    Productivity-wage nexus at the firm-level in Portugal - Decoupling and divergences

    There is a growing international concern about the slowdown in productivity growth, especially as labor productivity enhancements are important drivers of higher generalised living standards. Using administrative data of firms in Portugal between 2010 and 2016, we analyse the relationships between productivity and wages. At odds with neoclassical theory of marginal productivity of labor, we find that two thirds of firms insufficiently raised wages given observed productivity growth. Employing unconditional quantile regressions, we investigate some quantifiable determinants of the productivity-wage gap at different parts of the distributions. Most of the documented dynamics contributed not only to the divergence of productivity and wages but also to the decoupling of productivity and wage growth. We argue that labor market flexibilisation intensified segmentation, providing incentives for non standard contracts. Both dimensions, as well as higher board compensations, international trade and on-the-job training weakened the link between productivity and wages.
  • 15-October-2021

    English

    Policies for a Carbon-Neutral Industry in the Netherlands

    This report presents a comprehensive assessment of the policy instruments adopted by the Netherlands to reach carbon neutrality in its manufacturing sector by 2050. The analysis illustrates the strength of combining a strong commitment to raising carbon prices with ambitious technology support, uncovers the pervasiveness of competitiveness provisions, and highlights the trade-off between short-term emissions cuts and longer-term technology shift. The Netherlands’ carbon levy sets an ambitious price trajectory to 2030, but is tempered by extensive preferential treatment to energy-intensive users, yielding a highly unequal carbon price across firms and sectors. The country’s technology support focuses on the cost-effective deployment of low-carbon options, which ensures least-cost decarbonisation in the short run but favours relatively mature technologies. The report offers recommendations for policy adjustments to reach the country’s carbon neutrality objective, including the gradual removal of exemptions, enhanced support for emerging technologies and greater visibility over future infrastructure plans.
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  • 15-October-2021

    English

    Policies for a Carbon-Neutral Industry in the Netherlands

    This report presents a comprehensive assessment of the policy instruments adopted by the Netherlands to reach carbon neutrality in its manufacturing sector by 2050. The analysis illustrates the strength of combining a strong commitment to raising carbon prices with ambitious technology support, uncovers the pervasiveness of competitiveness provisions, and highlights the trade-off between short-term emissions cuts and longer-term technology shift. The Netherlands’ carbon levy sets an ambitious price trajectory to 2030, but is tempered by extensive preferential treatment to energy-intensive users, yielding a highly unequal carbon price across firms and sectors. The country’s technology support focuses on the cost-effective deployment of low-carbon options, which ensures least-cost decarbonisation in the short run but favours relatively mature technologies. The report offers recommendations for policy adjustments to reach the country’s carbon neutrality objective, including the gradual removal of exemptions, enhanced support for emerging technologies and greater visibility over future infrastructure plans.
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  • 13-October-2021

    English

    OECD Recommendation on Digital Security of Critical Activities

    The OECD Recommendation on Digital Security of Critical Activities sets out a range of policy recommendations to ensure that policies targeting operators of critical activities focus on what is critical for the economy and society without imposing unnecessary burdens on the rest.

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  • 13-October-2021

    English

    Enhancing the digital security of critical activities

    The digital transformation of critical activities such as the delivery of water, energy, healthcare, telecommunications, and banking services increasingly exposes them to cybersecurity threats, which can affect the health, safety, and security of citizens, the functioning of essential services, or economic and social prosperity more broadly. This Going Digital Toolkit note introduces key concepts, such as critical activities, critical information infrastructure (CII), cybersecurity and digital security risk management, and helps policymakers identify what needs to be protected and what types of measures operators of critical activities should take. It further discusses the institutional framework to develop and supervise policies to enhance the digital security of critical activities, including trust-based partnerships, and provides a selection of policy approaches from a range of jurisdictions in the Annex.
  • 11-octobre-2021

    Français

    Contenu en émissions de dioxyde de carbone des échanges internationaux

    Le contenu en émissions de dioxyde de carbone est calculé à partir des tableaux internationaux des entrées-sorties de l'OCDE, des bases de données sur les échanges bilatéraux des biens et des services ainsi que des données de l'Agence Internationale pour l'Énergie.

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  • 8-October-2021

    English

    Methodology for estimation of Energy Physical Supply and Use Tables based on IEA's World Energy Balances

    This paper develops a methodology for the estimation of Energy Physical Supply and Use Tables (E-PSUTs) based on the IEA’s World Energy Balances (WEB). The tables are similar to those proposed by the United Nations System of Environmental Economic Accounting. However, they fully exploit, and are consistent, with the information on fuel transformation processes available in the WEB. The E-PSUTs can be used to derive energy indicators in physical units. Additionally, they can be used in a hybrid methodological approach to link global energy production and consumption in physical units with global production and consumption in monetary units, allowing the development of indicators to better understand the multiple links between energy and the economy, contributing to climate change discussions. Furthermore, complementary analyses can be undertaken by linking the MF-IO model with variables such as industry value added and employment data. And, used to estimate energy-related CO2 emissions indicators.
  • 6-octobre-2021

    Français

    Gouvernance des données : améliorer l'accès aux données et leur partage

    La Recommandation de l’OCDE sur l’amélioration de l’accès aux données et de leur partage est le premier ensemble de principes et orientations convenu au plan international sur les moyens, pour les pouvoirs publics, d’optimiser les avantages intersectoriels liés à tous types de données, tout en protégeant les droits des individus et des organisations.

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  • 5-octobre-2021

    Français

    Contrer les fractures numériques entre femmes et hommes

    Ce séminaire a eu pour objet de faire un état des lieux de différentes fractures numériques entre femmes et hommes, d’identifier les domaines prioritaires dans lesquels devraient être poursuivis les efforts d’évaluation comparative, et de déterminer les mesures à prendre en priorité pour réduire les fractures numériques tant au niveau national que dans le cadre d’une coopération internationale.

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