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  • 15-December-2021

    English

    Artificial intelligence and employment - New cross-country evidence

    Recent years have seen impressive advances in artificial intelligence (AI) and this has stoked renewed concern about the impact of technological progress on the labour market, including on worker displacement. This paper looks at the possible links between AI and employment in a cross-country context. It adapts the AI occupational impact measure developed by Felten, Raj and Seamans (2018[1]; 2019[2]) – an indicator measuring the degree to which occupations rely on abilities in which AI has made the most progress – and extends it to 23 OECD countries. The indicator, which allows for variations in AI exposure across occupations, as well as within occupations and across countries, is then matched to Labour Force Surveys, to analyse the relationship with employment. Over the period 2012-2019, employment grew in nearly all occupations analysed. Overall, there appears to be no clear relationship between AI exposure and employment growth. However, in occupations where computer use is high, greater exposure to AI is linked to higher employment growth. The paper also finds suggestive evidence of a negative relationship between AI exposure and growth in average hours worked among occupations where computer use is low. While further research is needed to identify the exact mechanisms driving these results, one possible explanation is that partial automation by AI increases productivity directly as well as by shifting the task composition of occupations towards higher value-added tasks. This increase in labour productivity and output counteracts the direct displacement effect of automation through AI for workers with good digital skills, who may find it easier to use AI effectively and shift to non-automatable, higher-value added tasks within their occupations. The opposite could be true for workers with poor digital skills, who may not be able to interact efficiently with AI and thus reap all potential benefits of the technology.
  • 10-décembre-2021

    Français

    Le rôle des entreprises dans les inégalités salariales (version abrégée) - Enseignements d’une étude internationale à grande échelle

    Cette version abrégée est la traduction partielle de la version anglaise de la publication The Role of Firms in Wage Inequality - Policy Lessons from a Large Scale Cross-Country Study de l’OCDE. Elle contient le résumé de la publication ainsi que le chapitre 1 du rapport, qui propose une synthèse des enseignements d’une étude internationale à grande échelle sur le rôle des entreprises dans les inégalités salariales. L’enseignement principal est qu’un tiers environ de l’ensemble des inégalités salariales peut s’expliquer par des écarts de rémunération entre entreprises plutôt que par des différences de niveau et de rendement des compétences des travailleurs. Les écarts de rémunération entre entreprises traduisent des écarts en termes de productivité et de pouvoir de fixation des salaires. Pour atténuer les fortes inégalités salariales tout en favorisant une croissance forte et durable, les politiques centrées sur les travailleurs (éducation, formation des adultes, par exemple) doivent être complétées par des politiques axées sur les entreprises.
  • 10-December-2021

    English

    OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Kuwait 2021

    The slowdown in market demand for oil is putting increasing pressure on Kuwait's current economic and social model. This model is based on the distribution of petroleum export proceeds to Kuwaiti citizens, with relatively limited long-term investment in knowledge production and the upgrading of the national innovation capacity. The transition towards a knowledge-based society – where value creation, the resolution of societal challenges and the well-being of society at large will be based on the production, diffusion and implementation of knowledge – is becoming an imperative. This is recognised within the national development strategy which formulates the objective of attaining 'Smart Kuwait' by 2035. Such a transition is challenging and can only be achieved through the build-up of appropriate governance of the STI system with adequate institutions such as a Ministry and a professional agency with a mandate for research and innovation. This set-up should help raise awareness and reduce barriers to innovation, reinforce the scientific research base, develop the support for business innovation, foster knowledge diffusion and co‑creation between science and industry, build up the human capital needed, and establish the role of science, technology and innovation in tackling Kuwait's societal challenges.
  • 9-décembre-2021

    Français

    Le télétravail pendant la pandémie de COVID-19 : tendances et perspectives

    Cette note expose des informations clés sur l’évolution du télétravail au cours de la première année de la pandémie de COVID-19 (2020), en se concentrant sur les données fréquemment actualisées publiées par les organismes statistiques nationaux, ainsi que des données probantes sur la façon dont il pourrait évoluer à l’avenir.

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  • 6-December-2021

    English

    Technology in and for society: Innovating well for inclusive transitions

    This conference on 6-7 December seeks to develop a policy agenda to pair the transformative potential of emerging technology with the necessity of good governance: how we can innovate more and innovate better, i.e. within inclusive processes with values at the centre and lasting positive impact.

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  • 6-December-2021

    English

    The human side of productivity - Uncovering the role of skills and diversity for firm productivity

    Relying on linked employer-employee datasets from 10 countries, this paper documents that the skills and the diversity of the workforce and of managers – the human side of businesses – account on average for about one third of the labour productivity gap between firms at the productivity 'frontier' (the top 10% within each detailed industry) and medium performers at the 40-60 percentile of the productivity distribution. The composition of skills, especially the share of high skills, varies the most along the productivity distribution, but low and medium skilled employees make up a substantial share of the workforce even at the frontier. High skills show positive but decreasing productivity returns. Moreover, the skill mix of top firms varies markedly across countries, pointing to the role of different strategies pursued by firms in different policy environments. We also find that managerial skills play a particularly important role, also through complementarities with worker skills. Gender and cultural diversity among managers – and to a lesser extent, among workers – is positively related to firm productivity as well. We discuss public policies that can facilitate the catch-up of firms below the frontier through skills and diversity. These cover a wide range of areas, exerting their influence through three main channels: the supply, upgrading and the matching across firms (the SUM) of skills and other human factors.
  • 2-décembre-2021

    Français

    Approches actuelles des 50 principaux services mondiaux de partage de contenus en ligne face aux contenus terroristes et extrémistes violents

    Ce rapport dresse un état des lieux des règles et des procédures mises en œuvre par les 50 principaux services mondiaux de partage de contenus en ligne pour lutter contre les contenus terroristes et extrémistes violents, l’accent étant mis sur la transparence. Il en ressort que seuls cinq des 50 services étudiés publient des rapports de transparence dédiés à ce type de contenus, et qu’ils suivent ce faisant des approches diverses. Ils se fondent sur des définitions différentes du terrorisme et de l’extrémisme violent, ne signalent pas les mêmes types d’informations, s’appuient sur des mesures et des méthodes d’estimation disparates et publient leurs rapports à des fréquences et selon des calendriers distincts. Compte tenu du nombre peu élevé d’entreprises publiant des rapports et de l’hétérogénéité de la teneur, des calendriers et des modalités y afférents, il est impossible d’avoir une vision intersectorielle claire et exhaustive de l’efficacité des mesures prises par les entreprises pour lutter contre les contenus terroristes et extrémistes violents diffusés en ligne, ou des conséquences que ces mesures pourraient avoir sur le respect des droits humains. Cette situation pourrait s’améliorer si les entreprises étaient plus nombreuses à publier des rapports de transparence et y faisaient figurer des informations plus aisément comparables.
  • 30-November-2021

    English

    Responsible use of AI for public policy: Data science toolkit

    This joint report by the International Development Bank and the OECD uses the AI system lifecycle as the guiding framework to provide technical guidance for public policy teams.

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  • 23-November-2021

    English, PDF, 11,553kb

    World corporate top R&D investors: Paving the way for climate neutrality

    This report focuses on the role that top R&D investors play in the development and commercialisation of new climate change mitigation or adaptation technologies. It proposes for the first time an analysis of climate-related trademarks, which complement patent data on climate-related technologies.

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  • 19-November-2021

    English

    OECD Short-term Financial Tracker of Business R&D (SwiFTBeRD) dashboard

    The OECD SwiFTBeRD dashboard allows to visualise quarterly, semi-annually and annually reported R&D data for the world's top R&D investors, providing company-specific and sectoral insights.

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