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  • 12-mars-2021

    Français, PDF, 474kb

    Des politiques intelligentes pour les produits intelligents

    Guide à l’usage des responsables de la formulation des politiques publiques pour le renforcement de la sécurité numérique des produits

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  • 11-mars-2021

    Français

    Commerce bilatéral des biens par industrie et catégorie d'utilisation finale

    La base de données de l'OCDE sur le commerce bilatéral présente,pour l'ensemble des pays de l'OCDE et un grand nombre d'économies non membres, des valeurs d'échanges de biens, exprimées en dollars des É-U, ventilées par branche d'activité et type d'utilisation finale.

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  • 4-March-2021

    English

    The firm-level link between productivity dispersion and wage inequality - A symptom of low job mobility?

    Differences in average wages across firms – which account for around one-half of overall wage inequality – are mainly explained by differences in firm wage premia (the part of wages that depends exclusively on characteristics of firms) rather than workforce composition. Using a new cross-country dataset of linked employer-employee data, this paper investigates the role of cross-firm dispersion in productivity in explaining dispersion in firm wage premia, as well as the factors shaping the link between productivity and wages at the firm level. The results suggest that around 15% of cross-firm differences in productivity are passed on to differences in firm wage premia. The degree of pass-through is systematically larger in countries and industries with more limited job mobility, where low-productivity firms can afford to pay lower wage premia relative to high-productivity ones without a substantial fraction of workers quitting their jobs. Stronger product market competition raises pass-through while more centralised bargaining and higher minimum wages constrain firm-level wage setting at any given level of productivity dispersion. From a policy perspective, the results suggest that the key priority should be to promote job mobility, which would reduce wage differences between firms while easing the efficient reallocation of workers across them.
  • 1-March-2021

    English

    Building and sustaining collaborative platforms in genomics and biobanks for health innovation

    Genomic and biobank collaborative platforms hold significant promise for the development of new discoveries and therapies. This paper explores the complex technical, legal and business challenges arising from genomics and biobanks, and brings together ideas and best practices from major national and international platforms, and from a diverse range of experts. The global sharing of biological samples and genomic data has been critical for accelerating our understanding of the biology and spread of COVID-19, and for the development of vaccines and diagnostics. Although some of the policy challenges in the field are well known, they have been reconfigured by the digitalisation of health innovation combined with the increasing complexity and volume of data, the push for global collaboration, and the growing awareness of ethical, legal, and social implications.
  • 1-March-2021

    English

    AI measurement in ICT usage surveys - A review

    This paper takes stock of official statistics on AI use in firms collected through ICT usage surveys. Its aim is to highlight statistically sound data that can be used to guide policymakers and other stakeholders in the complex field of AI. It provides a cross-country comparison of official AI measures in selected OECD countries and international organisations by reviewing the statistical AI definitions developed explicitly for measurement purposes as well as the AI questions in official ICT use surveys. Based on the results of these surveys, the paper provides an international comparison of AI uptake among firms. It also includes a brief overview of smaller-scale non-official measures of AI, which can complement official statistics. In its final part, it makes an initial attempt to match AI policy with the AI measures previously analysed, and highlights possible next steps. This paper is also a contribution to the OECD AI Policy Observatory.
  • 23-February-2021

    English

    Consumer Product Safety

    OECD work on consumer product safety is aimed at strengthening information sharing on safety issues across borders.

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  • 23-February-2021

    English

    Management, skills and productivity

    This paper studies how industries’ investment in organisational capital (OC) and workforce skills relate to productivity, building on OECD estimates of OC, output data from the OECD Structural Analysis (STAN) database, and both cognitive and task-based skill indicators from the OECD Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). The paper finds that at the industry level, workers’ numeracy and endowment of skills related to science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) correlate positively with productivity, and that the positive correlation of STEM skills with productivity is generally larger for OC workers. The paper also finds evidence that skills dispersion harms industry performance. A gap between the ICT skills of OC and non-OC workers seems to trigger a 'lost in translation' type of mechanism, whereby communication and information flows become less fluid and impinge upon the economic performance of sectors, correlating negatively with productivity.
  • 18-February-2021

    English

    Business dynamism during the COVID-19 pandemic: Which policies for an inclusive recovery?

    This note looks at how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected business dynamism, how support to businesses has affected bankruptcy rates, and what countries can do to support a strong and resilient recovery.

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  • 15-février-2021

    Français, Excel, 446kb

    Qu’en est-il de l’efficacité des incitations fiscales en faveur de la R-D ? Nouveaux éléments issus du projet microBeRD de l’OCDE

    Le but du projet microBeRD est d’établir si les incitations fiscales en faveur de la R-D et du financement direct de la R-D favorisent bien un surcroît d’investissement dans la R-D (« effet d’entraînement ») de la part des entreprises, à l’aide d’une méthode d’analyse d’impact fondée sur les données, novatrice et internationalement répandue.

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  • 11-February-2021

    English

    Global Value Chains (GVCs)

    The emergence of GVCs challenges our conventional wisdom on how we look at economic globalisation and in particular the policies that we develop around it. The OECD is preparing a broad range of work to help policy makers understand the effects of GVCs on a number of policy domains.

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