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Reports


  • 23-February-2023

    English

    Advancing accountability in AI - Governing and managing risks throughout the lifecycle for trustworthy AI

    This report presents research and findings on accountability and risk in AI systems by providing an overview of how risk-management frameworks and the AI system lifecycle can be integrated to promote trustworthy AI. It also explores processes and technical attributes that can facilitate the implementation of values-based principles for trustworthy AI and identifies tools and mechanisms to define, assess, treat, and govern risks at each stage of the AI system lifecycle. This report leverages OECD frameworks – including the OECD AI Principles, the AI system lifecycle, and the OECD framework for classifying AI systems – and recognised risk-management and due-diligence frameworks like the ISO 31000 risk-management framework, the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Business Conduct, and the US National Institute of Standards and Technology’s AI risk-management framework.
  • 21-February-2023

    English

    AI scoring for international large-scale assessments using a deep learning model and multilingual data

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) scoring for constructed-response items, using recent advancements in multilingual, deep learning techniques utilising models pre-trained with a massive multilingual text corpus, is examined using international large-scale assessment data. Historical student responses to Reading and Science literacy cognitive items developed under the PISA analytical framework are used as training data for deep learning together with multilingual data to construct an AI model. The trained AI models are then used to score and the results compared with human-scored data. The score distributions estimated based on the AI-scored data and the human-scored data are highly consistent with each other; furthermore, even item-level psychometric properties of the majority of items showed high levels of agreement, although a few items showed discrepancies. This study demonstrates a practical procedure for using a multilingual data approach, and this new AI-scoring methodology reached a practical level of quality, even in the context of an international large-scale assessment.
  • 21-février-2023

    Français

    Cadre d'action de l'OCDE sur la sécurité numérique - La cybersécurité pour la prospérité

    Le Cadre d'action de l'OCDE sur la sécurité numérique aborde la dimension économique et sociale de la cybersécurité, souligne l'approche de l'OCDE en matière de politiques publiques de sécurité numérique, et permet aux décideurs d'utiliser les Recommandations de l'OCDE dans ce domaine. Le Cadre identifie également les liens entre les normes de sécurité numérique et d'autres normes et outils de l'OCDE. L'OCDE est à l'avant-garde des efforts internationaux pour guider les décideurs dans le domaine des politiques publiques de sécurité numérique depuis 1990. L'OCDE est devenue la première instance internationale normalisatrice dans ce domaine. Les Recommandations de l'OCDE sur la sécurité numérique soutiennent les parties prenantes dans l'élaboration de politiques visant la prospérité économique et sociale, en accord avec la mission de l'OCDE d'aider les gouvernements à élaborer des 'politiques meilleures pour des vies meilleures'.
  • 21-February-2023

    English

    Policies to strengthen the resilience of global value chains - Empirical evidence from the COVID-19 shock

    Widespread supply disruptions in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic and the Russian Federation’s large-scale aggression against Ukraine have raised concerns among policy makers that globalised value chains expose domestic production to shocks from abroad. This paper uses new indicators of global value chain dependencies and exogenous pandemic shocks to econometrically estimate the effects of supply disruptions abroad on domestic output. The results suggest that the adverse effects of supply disruptions are particularly large when concentration of supplying countries and supplying firms is high. Counterfactual simulations of the econometric model suggest that diversification of suppliers would have sizeable benefits in terms of shielding domestic production against country-specific supply shocks, with partial onshoring of production having only small additional benefits. Technological innovation that reduces foreign dependencies, such as the substitution of renewable energies for fossil fuels, can have similar benefits as diversification.
  • 16-February-2023

    English

    Data portability in open banking - Privacy and other cross-cutting issues

    Open banking allows users to access financial information and services through consent-based data portability. This paper brings together the views of private and public experts from a wide variety of countries to explore opportunities and challenges of open banking for financial regulation, privacy protection, and competition. It discusses the different approaches taken by jurisdictions across the globe, and the importance of regulation and standards. While open banking empowers users in sharing and re-using their data across digital services, online platforms, sectors and borders, uncertainty in the interactions with data protection and privacy regimes remains challenging. This paper informs OECD work to consider how cross-sectoral cooperation between financial, competition and data protection authorities could help further open banking.
  • 9-February-2023

    English

    Enhancing intellectual property use for a stronger innovation ecosystem in Poland

    The paper presents a comprehensive assessment of the strengths and limitations of the intellectual property (IP) system in Poland. It offers policy recommendations to fully exploit the potential of IP to support an innovation-based economy. It finds that the key components of an effective IP strategy in Poland should include the promotion of IP use among economic actors and other stakeholders as well as information campaigns and training programmes to raise awareness and knowledge about the advantages of IP. Recommendations also include reducing barriers to IP use by lowering the costs of and simplifying IP-related procedures, and promoting the valorisation of IP held by universities to enhance technology transfer to the business sector.
  • 3-February-2023

    English

    Identifying artificial intelligence actors using online data

    This paper uses information collected and provided by GlassAI to analyse the characteristics and activities of companies and universities in Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States that mention keywords related to Artificial Intelligence (AI) on their websites. The analysis finds that those companies tend to be young and small, mainly operate in the information and communication sector, have AI at the core of their business, and aim to provide customer solutions. It is noteworthy that the types of AI-related activities reported by them vary across sectors. Additionally, although universities are concentrated in and around large cities, this is not necessarily reflected in the intensity of AI-related activities. Taken together, this novel and timely evidence informs the debate on the most recent stages of digital transformation of the economy.
  • 14-December-2022

    English

    Rights in the digital age - Challenges and ways forward

    As our online and offline lives become increasingly interwoven, policy makers have to consider how to protect individual interests and rights. This paper considers the impact of digital transformation on internationally recognised human rights, legal and constitutional rights, and domestically protected interests. It sets out three case studies, freedom of expression, privacy and Internet access, and provides a brief overview of current international and domestic initiatives to protect 'rights in the digital age'. The paper sets the scene for further discussion on the issue and supports policy makers in designing and achieving a rights-oriented and human-centric digital transformation.
  • 14-December-2022

    English

    Going Digital to Advance Data Governance for Growth and Well-being

    Data are generated wherever digital technologies are deployed namely, in almost every part of modern life. Using these data can empower individuals, drive innovation, enable new digital products and improve policy making and public service delivery. But as data become more widely used across sectors and applications, the potential for misuse and harm also grows. To advance data governance for growth and well-being, this report advocates a holistic and coherent approach to data governance, domestically and across borders. It examines how data have emerged as a strategic asset, with the ability to transform lives and confer economic advantage. It explains how the unique characteristics of data can pose complex trade-offs and challenge policies that pre-date the data-driven era. This report provides new insights, evidence and analysis and outlines considerations for better data governance policies in the digital age.
  • 14-December-2022

    English

    Going Digital Guide to Data Governance Policy Making

    The ubiquitous collection, use, and sharing of data that power today’s economies challenge existing governance frameworks and policy approaches. Drawing on the extensive research and analysis conducted at the OECD on data governance, on countries’ policies and practices, and the OECD legal instruments in this area, the Going Digital Guide to Data Governance Policy Making supports policy makers in navigating three fundamental policy tensions that characterise efforts to develop, revise, and implement policies for data governance across policy domains in the digital age: balancing data openness and control while maximising trust; managing overlapping and potentially conflicting interests and regulations related to data; incentivising investments in data and their effective re-use. The operative part of the guide consists of a checklist of questions to orient policy makers as they develop and revise effective policies for data governance, based on possible policy approaches and real-life examples.
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