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Reports


  • 16-October-2023

    English

    Measuring governments’ R&D funding response to COVID-19 - An application of the OECD Fundstat infrastructure to the analysis of R&D directionality

    This paper presents new evidence on the size and direction of governments’ R&D funding response to the COVID-19 pandemic through the exploration of a novel data infrastructure, the OECD Fundstat initiative for the analysis of government-funded R&D projects. The document reports on the exploratory development and application of automatic classification tools to detect relevant COVID-19 R&D funding, map salient topics and classify and allocate project funding according to priorities in the WHO COVID-19 R&D Blueprint, as well as comparing results with similar analysis of scientific publication output data. The results provide new insights on which areas of enquiry were prioritised by governmental R&D funding bodies.
  • 9-October-2023

    English

    The Impact of R&D tax incentives - Results from the OECD microBeRD+ project

    This document reports on the final output of the OECD microBeRD+ project. Drawing on the outcomes of previous work, this study presents new evidence on the impact of business R&D support policies – tax incentives and direct forms of support – on business R&D investment (R&D input additionality) and the innovation and economic performance of firms (R&D output additionality). The report also provides an exploratory analysis of R&D spillovers.
  • 29-septembre-2023

    Français

    Processus du G7, dit d'Hiroshima, sur l'intelligence artificielle générative - Vers une vision commune à l'échelle du G7 sur l'IA générative

    En mai 2023, les dirigeants du G7 ont recensé les thèmes à examiner dans le cadre du processus d’Hiroshima et demandé l’établissement rapide d’un état des lieux des possibilités et enjeux associés à l’IA générative. Ce rapport donne à voir les réponses reçues à un questionnaire conçu pour faciliter cet état des lieux et doit étayer les échanges du G7 au sujet des priorités d’action communes en ce qui concerne cette technologie. Il permet également de brosser une rapide vue d’ensemble de son évolution dans le temps et dans l’espace. Le rapport et les réponses au questionnaire doivent être considérés comme le reflet de la situation à un instant T : ils donnent une idée des tendances observables à l’été 2023, dans un contexte technologique en mutation rapide. Le rapport a contribué à éclairer et structurer les discussions tenues dans le cadre du processus du G7, dit d’Hiroshima, sur l’IA.
  • 22-September-2023

    English

    Review of the OECD Recommendation on Cross-Border Co-operation in the Enforcement of Laws Protecting Privacy

    This report assesses the continued relevance of the OECD Recommendation on Cross-Border Co-operation in the Enforcement of Laws Protecting Privacy, originally adopted in 2007. It examines whether the Recommendation has kept pace with the evolving needs of Privacy Enforcement Authorities (PEAs) in light of significant technological and legal changes over the past 15 years. While the principles underlying the Recommendation are seen to remain solid, the report highlights several gaps and challenges for cross-border enforcement co-operation. It concludes that the OECD could either provide additional guidance to support the implementation of the Recommendation or consider revising it to better address current challenges.
  • 18-September-2023

    English

    Initial policy considerations for generative artificial intelligence

    Generative artificial intelligence (AI) creates new content in response to prompts, offering transformative potential across multiple sectors such as education, entertainment, healthcare and scientific research. However, these technologies also pose critical societal and policy challenges that policy makers must confront: potential shifts in labour markets, copyright uncertainties, and risk associated with the perpetuation of societal biases and the potential for misuse in the creation of disinformation and manipulated content. Consequences could extend to the spreading of mis- and disinformation, perpetuation of discrimination, distortion of public discourse and markets, and the incitement of violence. Governments recognise the transformative impact of generative AI and are actively working to address these challenges. This paper aims to inform these policy considerations and support decision makers in addressing them.
  • 13-September-2023

    English

    Enhancing the security of communication infrastructure

    The digital security of communication networks is crucial to the functioning of our societies. Four trends are shaping networks, raising digital security implications: i) the increasing criticality of communication networks, ii) increased virtualisation of networks and use of cloud services, iii) a shift towards more openness in networks and iv) the role of artificial intelligence in networks. These trends bring benefits and challenges to digital security. While digital security ultimately depends on the decisions made by private actors (e.g. network operators and their suppliers), the report underlines the role governments can play to enhance the digital security of communication networks. It outlines key policy objectives and actions governments can take to incentivise the adoption of best practices and support stakeholders to reach an optimal level of digital security, ranging from light-touch to more interventionist approaches.
  • 8-September-2023

    English

    Labour and Skills Demand in Alberta - Insights Using Big Data Intelligence

    This report examines Alberta's labour market trends, focusing on the impact of economic downturns, the COVID-19 crisis, and digital transformation. This study uses real-time labour market data, drawn from online job postings, to offer a granular perspective on demand dynamics across various sectors and occupations. The analysis in the report identifies emerging labour shortages in Alberta due to mega-trends such as digitalisation, AI adoption, automation, and population ageing and discusses key challenges such as youth unemployment and sector-specific labour shortages. The analysis in this report provides insights for policy makers, suggesting a need to support growing sectors, enhance digital skills development, address demand for health workers, and improve youth job access.
  • 8-September-2023

    English

    Digital Government Review of Latin America and the Caribbean - Building Inclusive and Responsive Public Services

    This report explores how governments in Latin America and the Caribbean can use digital technology and data to foster responsiveness, resilience and proactiveness in the public sector. This report looks at governance frameworks, digital government capabilities, data-driven public sector, public service design and delivery, and digital innovation in the public sector. It identifies trends, challenges, strengths, and opportunities for cross-border collaboration and provides policy recommendations to achieve an efficient and sustainable digital transformation of governments across the region.
  • 1-September-2023

    English

    Promoting diverse career pathways for doctoral and postdoctoral researchers

    This report analyses the career options of doctoral and postdoctoral researchers. It identifies policies and practices to promote diverse careers, flexible career trajectories and ultimately better-quality research and innovation across different economic and social sectors. The report presents a conceptual framework and synthesis of available data and policy information. It offers recommendations and a set of policy options to: promote engagement and interaction with employers outside academia; provide researchers with experience and skills for diverse careers; encourage valorisation of diverse career options; support career development and guidance for researchers; promote inter-sectoral mobility; and, reconfigure and support careers in academia.
  • 12-August-2023

    English

    Measuring Innovation in Education 2023 - Tools and Methods for Data-Driven Action and Improvement

    Measuring innovation in education and understanding its drivers and obstacles is essential to improve the quality of the education sector – and of specific educational establishments. Are pedagogical and administrative practices changing in the expected direction? Do educational institution have a positive innovation culture that supports innovation? What are the drivers of innovation that policy makers or institution leaders could influence to achieve the systems’ educational objectives? How much do countries invest in educational research? This book proposes insights and tools to policy makers and education leaders willing to drive change based on data and evidence and new tools and methodologies for education policy makers and institution leaders to answer those questions. Based on the research literature and the long experience of innovation and research surveys, these tools are meant either for a statistical collection or to engage in self-reflection at the institutional level. Three aspects of innovation are covered: educational innovation at the system level, innovation culture within educational institutions, innovation towards equity in education. A questionnaire to measure educational research and experimental development expenditures and implementation and new methodologies to measure certain aspects of educational innovation and educational research based on big data and bibliometrics are also presented.
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