• 4-November-2022


    A new landscape for space applications - Illustrations from Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine

    For decades, governments have relied on space systems for intelligence gathering and satellite connectivity in remote areas, but today’s situation marks a distinct break with the past. Extended coverage, advances in digital technologies and, importantly, free and/or commercial availability of space products allow many new uses by both government and non-government actors. This brings important benefits for users and citizens, but also leads to new challenges in terms of data management, infrastructure and supply chain resilience, and international co-operation. This paper uses illustrations from the war in Ukraine to highlight recent developments in the sector, placing them in a broader context of digitalisation and government space investments. It discusses the growing importance of space technologies for society and provides policy options and resources from other strains of OECD work.
  • 25-October-2022


    Transparency reporting on terrorist and violent extremist content online 2022

    This is the third benchmarking report tracking the evolution of online content-sharing services’ policies and procedures for terrorist and violent extremist content (TVEC). Fifteen of the top 50 most popular services now issue TVEC-specific transparency reports, increasing from five in 2020 and eleven in 2021. This edition also examines the 50 services that disseminate the most TVEC ('Intensive Services'). Only eleven services appear in both groups, reflecting that bad actors are shifting to smaller services as the larger ones strengthen TVEC moderation. Only eight Intensive Services currently issue TVEC-specific transparency reports, thirteen have no prohibition on TVEC and seventeen provide no information at all. The findings also suggest that services size and encryption are not insurmountable barriers to transparency reporting. It remains difficult to obtain an industry-wide perspective on the impact of companies’ measures against TVEC. Finally, regulatory fragmentation is worsening as more jurisdictions are implementing disparate transparency requirements. Previous benchmarking reports: 'Transparency reporting on terrorist and violent extremist content online: An update on the global top 50 content sharing' (2021); 'Current approaches to terrorist and violent extremist content among the global top 50 online content-sharing services' (2020).
  • 24-October-2022


    Communication regulators of the future

    The communication sector is undergoing high-paced developments driven by the digital transformation of our economies and societies. Technological convergence has led to an evolving competitive landscape and new challenges arise around privacy and security concerns. Communication regulators are increasingly acknowledging the positive and negative effects of communication infrastructures and services on the environment. Moreover, there is a growing need to ensure the resilience of networks, stemming partially from the effects of climate change. In consequence, the key question for OECD policymakers is no longer whether regulatory structures need to change, but rather how. This report explores the critical role communication regulators play in an increasingly connected society. It identifies the challenges stemming from the digital transformation of our societies, the main policy objectives pursued by communication regulators, measures to address current and future challenges, as well as the importance of strengthening the capabilities of communication regulators of the future.
  • 20-October-2022


    Developments in spectrum management for communication services

    Spectrum is a limited national resource that enables our digital world. Mobile broadband services rely on these invisible airwaves to function, making spectrum indispensable to bridge connectivity divides. It also supports the provision of wireless services across the economy, from education to healthcare to industry, and enables applications such as satellites, GPS and the Internet of Things. Spectrum must be efficiently managed to achieve broader social and economic goals. As such, the stakes of spectrum management decisions are high and the challenges complex. This report discusses the effective stewardship of this essential asset in the context of wireless communication services, presents trends in policy, and discusses future considerations for management. It finds that well-designed and transparent licensing regimes, including auctions, foster investment and innovation, and that flexible frameworks (e.g. sharing or unlicensed spectrum) can promote efficient use.
  • 12-October-2022


    Cross-border Data Flows - Taking Stock of Key Policies and Initiatives

    As data become an important resource for the global economy, it is important to strengthen trust to facilitate data sharing domestically and across borders. Significant momentum for related policies in the G7, and G20, has gone hand in hand with a wide range of – often complementary – national and international initiatives and the development of technological and organisational measures. Advancing a common understanding and dialogue among G7 countries and beyond is crucial to support coordinated and coherent progress in policy and regulatory approaches that leverage the full potential of data for global economic and social prosperity. This report takes stock of key policies and initiatives on cross-border data flows to inform and support G7 countries’ engagement on this policy agenda.
  • 12-October-2022


    Routing security - BGP incidents, mitigation techniques and policy actions

    The routing system plays a fundamental role in the operation of the Internet and its security is of critical importance to the digital security of communication networks. However, there are many examples of accidental and intentional routing disruptions and security breaches that disrupt the Internet and impact networks’ digital security. This report analyses available data to quantify the scope and scale of routing incidents occurring on the global Internet, presents some of the available security techniques to limit these incidents and considers their effectiveness. While the routing system transcends national borders, the report offers policy makers a series of concrete actions to improve routing security.
  • 7-October-2022


    Financing Growth and Turning Data into Business - Helping SMEs Scale Up

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that scale up have long raised policy interest for their extraordinary potential in terms of job creation, innovation, competitiveness and economic growth. Yet, little is known about which firms could effectively become scalers, and what policies could effectively promote SME growth. This report is part of a series aiming to help policy makers unleash scalers’ potential. Building on new evidence from microdata work, it rethinks the nature and scope of scale up policies, suggesting the need for a broader and more cross cutting approach. The report then explores two thematic areas that are relevant for SME scaling up, i.e. SME data governance and their access to ‘scale up’ finance. Based on an international mapping of 369 institutions and 1174 policy initiatives across OECD countries, the analysis shows that SME and entrepreneurship policy is not among the core mandates of many implementing institutions, calling for sound coordination across the board and further mainstreaming of SME growth considerations in both policy areas. Moreover, national policy mixes vary significantly across countries, reflecting different approaches to promoting SME growth and to SME targeting, but also revealing possible policy blind spots.
  • 5-October-2022


    Good practice principles for ethical behavioural science in public policy

    For the past decade, behavioural science has been influencing public policy by applying principles of psychology, cognitive and social sciences, neuroscience and economics, to put individuals at the forefront of policy goals, and with an accurate rather than imagined understanding of human behaviour. Like any policy-making tool, the use of behavioural insights must be subject to ethical considerations that can arise at any point from scoping to policy scaling. This good practice guide offers practitioners and policy makers step-by-step guidance to prompt deliberations into how to use behavioural science ethically for public policy. It is designed to be a practical resource to promote the responsible use of behavioural science in the public sector.
  • 4-October-2022


    OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Germany 2022 - Building Agility for Successful Transitions

    The COVID-19 pandemic and the Ukraine war have revealed vulnerabilities in Germany’s economic model: undiversified energy supply, an over-reliance on fossil fuels, delayed digitalisation and disruptable supply chains. Digital technologies may significantly disrupt manufacturing industries Germany has dominated for decades, threatening future competitiveness. The green transition also requires significant industrial transformations. Germany can call upon one of the world’s most advanced innovation systems in dealing with these challenges, but a new more agile and experimental approach to STI policy is needed. This Review outlines how to develop such an approach and what STI policies need to focus on: create markets for future innovations, more significant and more risk-tolerant finance for innovation, inter-disciplinary knowledge exchange, improved data infrastructure and capabilities. Given the internationally shared challenges of dealing with transitions, the insights presented in the review will be of interest to policymakers, stakeholders and analysts from Germany and across the OECD.
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