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Publications & Documents


  • 24-September-2021

    English

    Implementation and usage of the OECD Recommendation on Broadband Development

    Without connectivity, there can be no digital transformation of economies and societies. With this in mind, the OECD Recommendation of the Council on Broadband Development was adopted in 2004. Since then, broadband markets, underlying technologies, and the policies in place to spur the development of broadband networks have undergone significant changes. This document summarises the outcome of an extensive questionnaire sent to delegates of OECD countries and stakeholder groups. The questionnaire aimed to gather information on the experience of OECD countries concerning broadband development in general, and more particularly their experience in implementing the 2004 Recommendation. The responses to the questionnaire were used to inform the review and revision of the 2004 Recommendation, which resulted in the adoption of the 2021 OECD Council Recommendation on Broadband Connectivity.
  • 24-September-2021

    English

    Broadband policy and technology developments

    The promotion of widespread, affordable, and high-quality broadband is a prerequisite for the digital transformation of economies and societies. Foreseeing the role of broadband as an accelerator of economic, social and cultural development, the OECD adopted the Council Recommendation on Broadband Development in 2004. Since then, important developments have taken place in broadband technologies and markets. As part of the review of the 2004 Recommendation undertaken from 2018 to 2020 and resulting in the adoption of the revised 2021 OECD Council Recommendation on Broadband Connectivity, this report examines the evolution of broadband technologies, policies and regulation to foster broadband developments since 2004 as well as the benefits of, and challenges to, accelerating these developments to further enable digital transformation and inclusive growth.
  • 23-septembre-2021

    Français

    Principaux indicateurs de la science et de la technologie

    Un jeu d'indicateurs mis à jour régulièrement qui reflète le niveau et la structure des efforts menés par les pays de l'OCDE et par une sélection d'économies non-membres dans les domaines de la science et de la technologie.

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  • 22-September-2021

    English

    The human capital behind AI - Jobs and skills demand from online job postings

    Building on recent OECD work, this paper analyses the skills sets ('skills bundles') demanded in artificial intelligence (AI)-related online job postings. The analysis uses Burning Glass Technologies’ data for the United States and the United Kingdom and finds that skills related to the open source programming software Python and to machine learning represent 'must-haves' for working with AI. Employers additionally value specialised skills related to robotics, AI development and applying AI. A comparison of the periods 2013-15 and 2017-19 shows that the latter two have become more interrelated over time, with 'neural network' skills connecting both groups. Network analysis relating AI skills to general skills highlights the growing role of socio-emotional skills; and of skill bundles related to programming, management of big data and data analysis. Key results hold for both countries and time periods, though differences emerge across occupations and industries.
  • 5-août-2021

    Français

    Répercussions du COVID-19 sur le secteur spatial

    La croissance récente du secteur sptial a donné lieu à un niveau sans précédent d’activité entrepreneuriale et de création d’entreprises. Toutefois, cette tendance positive pourrait s’inverser sous l’effet de la crise du COVID‑19.

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  • 30-July-2021

    English

    Value chains in public marine data - A UK case study

    Marine data play a crucial role for many scientific disciplines, as well as for very diverse operational services such as fisheries management, environmental planning, marine conservation, weather forecasting, or port management. The information derived from marine data is also increasingly finding its way into a wide and varied range of public policy arenas and private industries. Collecting, distributing and archiving public marine data provide benefits to society at large, however as with all public investments, assessments are needed to provide evidence to decision makers. Based on an original survey of UK marine data users, this paper explores pathways through which marine data are used and transformed into actionable information, creating systematised value chains for the first time. The analysis unveils trends in current marine data uses in the UK and key benefits of data uses. The paper lays the foundations for further OECD work with the marine data community.
  • 29-July-2021

    English

    Corporate effective tax rates for R&D - The case of expenditure-based R&D tax incentives

    R&D tax incentives have become a widely used policy tool to promote business R&D. How do they shape firms’ incentives to invest in R&D? This paper contributes a methodology to construct forward-looking effective tax rates for an R&D investment that reflect the value of expenditure-based R&D tax incentives. The new OECD estimates cover 48 countries and consider the case of large profitable firms, accounting for the bulk of R&D in most economies. The results provide new insights into the generosity of R&D tax incentives from the perspective of firms that decide on whether or where to invest in R&D (extensive margin) and the level (intensive margin) of R&D investment. The generosity of the favourable tax treatment of R&D is shown to vary at the intensive and extensive margins, highlighting differences in countries’ strategies to support R&D through the tax system.
  • 29-July-2021

    English

    Measuring Tax Support for R&D and Innovation

    Governments worldwide increasingly rely on tax incentives in addition to direct support measures (e.g. grants) to promote R&D in firms and encourage innovation and economic growth. The OECD has developed experimental methodologies and a detailed database on R&D tax incentives with the latest indicators on the cost and information on the design and scope of R&D tax incentives.

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  • 29-July-2021

    English

    Making life richer, easier and healthier - Robots, their future and the roles for public policy

    This paper addresses the current and emerging uses and impacts of robots, the mid-term future of robotics and the role of policy. Progress in robotics will help to make life easier, richer and healthier. Wider robot use will help raise labour productivity. As science and engineering progress, robots will become more central to crisis response, from helping combat infectious diseases to maintaining critical infrastructure. Governments can accelerate and orient the development and uptake of socially valuable robots, for instance by: supporting cross-disciplinary R&D, facilitating research commercialisation, helping small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) understand the opportunities for investment in robots, supporting platforms that highlight robot solutions in healthcare and other sectors, embedding robotics engineering in high school curricula, tailoring training for workers with vocational-level mechanical skills, supporting data development useful to robotics, ensuring flexible regulation conducive to innovation, strengthening digital connectivity, and raising awareness of the importance of robotics.
  • 23-July-2021

    English

    OECD International Survey of Science

    The International Survey of Science (ISSA) collects information on the activities of authors of scientific publications through a global online survey. It aims to complement other available statistical evidence and indicators in order to provide insights on selected aspects of research and inform science policy.

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