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Publications & Documents


  • 30-octobre-2020

    Français

    Perspectives de l'OCDE sur les compétences 2019 - Prospérer dans un monde numérique

    Les économies et les sociétés sont en pleine transformation numérique. Les technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC), l'intelligence artificielle (IA) et la robotique modifient profondément la façon dont les gens travaillent, interagissent, communiquent et vivent. Ces transformations apportent à la fois des opportunités et des défis et l’aptitude des pays à tirer parti des avantages d’un monde numérique dépend largement des compétences de leur population. L’édition 2019 des Perspectives de l’OCDE sur les compétences a pour objectif de comprendre comment les politiques, en particulier celles qui affectent le développement et l’utilisation des compétences, peuvent influencer les résultats de la transformation numérique et garantir que la nouvelle vague technologique aboutisse à de meilleurs résultats pour tous. Pour que les individus puissent tirer parti des nouvelles technologies à la maison et au travail et ne soient pas laissés-pour-compte, un effort politique global et coordonné est nécessaire. Cet ensemble de politiques doit à la fois promouvoir la numérisation lorsque cette dernière augmente la productivité et le bien-être, et atténuer ses impacts négatifs. Les politiques en matière de compétences et d'éducation sont primordiales au sein de cet ensemble de politiques.
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  • 26-October-2020

    English

    OECD Telecommunication and Broadcasting Review of Brazil 2020

    Connectivity is the backbone of the digital transformation, and as such, policies and regulatory measures that foster access to high-quality communication services at competitive prices are key. This review provides a comprehensive examination of Brazil’s communication and broadcasting sectors, highlighting areas for regulatory and policy reform that can help ensure a successful and inclusive digital transformation. It analyses market performance of the communication and broadcasting sectors, as well as underlying policies and regulations. Based on its findings, the report recommends actions in five key areas: improving the policy and regulatory framework; overhauling the taxation, fees and tariff framework; improving market conditions; fostering competition in communication and broadcasting markets; and strengthening national policies and evidence-based policy making. These areas should be addressed simultaneously, in order to ensure a holistic approach to reform.
  • 12-octobre-2020

    Français

    Déchiffrer le code - L’élaboration de règles exécutables par les humains et par les machines

    Le codage des règles est un concept prometteur qui repense l’une des fonctions fondamentales des États : la réglementation. Il propose que les autorités établissent une version officielle des règles (lois et règlements, par exemple) sous une forme exécutable par les machines, afin de permettre aux systèmes informatiques de les comprendre et de les mettre en application de manière uniforme. Plus qu’une simple solution technocratique, le codage des règles représente une évolution radicale de la façon dont les pouvoirs publics créent les règles, et de celle dont les tiers les exécutent. Partout dans le monde, des équipes du secteur public expérimentent le concept et ses applications potentielles en réponse à l’environnement opérationnel de plus en plus complexe et aux pressions croissantes sur les systèmes de réglementation en place. Déchiffrer le Code a pour objectif d’aider les intervenants publics et privés à comprendre le potentiel ainsi que les limitations et conséquences du codage des règles.
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  • 7-October-2020

    English, PDF, 5,889kb

    Measuring the economic impact of the space sector: Key indicators and options to improve data

    G20 economies account for the bulk of government funding of space activities and are leaders in space research and innovation. This OECD background note for the G20 Space Economy Leaders' Space20 meeting presents indicators and options on how to improve measurement of the space economy.

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  • 6-octobre-2020

    Français

    STAN base de données pour l'ANalyse STructurelle

    La base de données STAN pour l'analyse structurelle permet de comparer les performances industrielles internationales, à un niveau détaillé des activités économiques.

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  • 28-September-2020

    English

    Using Google data to understand governments’ approval in Latin America

    This paper studies the potential drivers of governments’ approval rates in 18 Latin American countries using Internet search query data from Google Trends and traditional data sources. It employs monthly panel data between January 2006 and December 2015. The analysis tests several specifications including traditional explanatory variables of governments’ approval rates – i.e. inflation, unemployment rate, GDP growth, output gap – and subjective explanatory variables – e.g. perception of corruption and insecurity. For the latter, it uses Internet search query data to proxy citizens’ main social concerns, which are expected to drive governments’ approval rates. The results show that the perception of corruption and insecurity, and complaints about public services have a statistically significant association with governments’ approval rates. This paper also discusses the potential of Internet search query data as a tool for policy makers to understand better citizens’ perceptions, since it provides highly anonymous and high-frequency series in real-time.
  • 15-September-2020

    English

    Regulations and Standards for Clean Trucks and Buses - On the Right Track?

    This report reviews progress on technical standards for heavy vehicles that could enable trucks and buses with zero or near-zero emissions. It focuses on plug-in and fuel cell electric vehicles that use technologies at the forefront of green and inclusive economic development. It includes information on technical standards on charging and refueling infrastructure, and identifies remaining barriers and opportunities for their future development. The report offers valuable insights for all stakeholders involved in the transition to carbon-free mobility and clean energy.
  • 8-September-2020

    English

    Sustainable Ocean for All - Harnessing the Benefits of Sustainable Ocean Economies for Developing Countries

    Adopting more sustainable ways of managing the ocean is a global priority: protecting its health will bring benefits to all. Developing countries face specific challenges, as many depend heavily on ocean-based industries and are overly exposed to the consequences of ocean degradation. Enhancing their access to science, policy advice and financing would allow them to tap better into the opportunities of a more sustainable ocean economy, including more decent jobs, cleaner energy, improved food security and enhanced resilience, while contributing to the protection of the world’s ocean. This report provides policy makers in developing countries, as well as their development co-operation partners with a wealth of fresh evidence on (i) the latest trends in selected ocean-based industries; (ii) policy instruments, including economic incentives, to promote ocean sustainability in various contexts; (iii) the first review of development finance and development co-operation practices in support of more sustainable ocean economies, including a discussion of how development co-operation can help re-orient private finance towards sustainability.
  • 3-September-2020

    English

    The effects of R&D tax incentives and their role in the innovation policy mix - Findings from the OECD microBeRD project, 2016-19

    This report presents new evidence on the impact of R&D tax incentives and direct funding of business R&D, drawing on distributed cross-country and firm-level analyses undertaken as part of the first phase of the OECD microBeRD project (2016-19). This 'distributed' approach facilitates a harmonised analysis of confidential business R&D and tax relief microdata in 20 OECD countries. microBeRD provides new insights into the effectiveness of R&D tax incentives in encouraging business R&D in the OECD area and the heterogeneity of effects both within and across OECD countries, including the underlying impact mechanisms. The report contributes to the debate on the role of R&D tax incentives in the policy mix by providing additional comparative evidence on the effects of alternative business R&D inducement incentives.
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