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Publications & Documents


  • 13-June-2024

    English

    Governing with Artificial Intelligence - Are governments ready?

    OECD countries are increasingly investing in better understanding the potential value of using Artificial Intelligence (AI) to improve public governance. The use of AI by the public sector can increase productivity, responsiveness of public services, and strengthen the accountability of governments. However, governments must also mitigate potential risks, building an enabling environment for trustworthy AI. This policy paper outlines the key trends and policy challenges in the development, use, and deployment of AI in and by the public sector. First, it discusses the potential benefits and specific risks associated with AI use in the public sector. Second, it looks at how AI in the public sector can be used to improve productivity, responsiveness, and accountability. Third, it provides an overview of the key policy issues and presents examples of how countries are addressing them across the OECD.
  • 13-June-2024

    English

    A new dawn for public employment services - Service delivery in the age of artificial intelligence

    As part of broader digitalisation efforts, half of public employment services (PES) in OECD countries are employing Artificial Intelligence (AI) to enhance their services. AI is being adopted across all key tasks of PES, including most commonly to match jobseekers with vacancies. While several PES have been using such tools for a decade, adoption of AI has been increasing in recent years as these become more accessible. New AI use cases have emerged to assist employers in designing vacancy postings and jobseekers in their career management and job-search strategies. AI initiatives have significant impact on PES clients, changing how they interact with the PES and receive support, and PES staff, altering their day-to-day work. As PES seek to maximise the opportunities brought by AI, proactive steps should be taken to mitigate associated risks. Key considerations for PES include prioritising transparency of AI algorithms and explainability of results, establishing governance frameworks, ensuring end-users (staff and clients) are included and supported in the development and adoption process, and committing to rigorous monitoring and evaluation to increase the positive and manage any negative impact of AI solutions.
  • 6-June-2024

    English

    OECD news on innovation, science, technology and industry

    This newsletter delivers the latest reports, statistics and policy recommendations from the OECD Directorate for Science, Technology and Innovation.

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  • 30-May-2024

    English

    Artificial intelligence and the changing demand for skills in Canada - The increasing importance of social skills

    Most workers who will be exposed to artificial intelligence (AI) will not require specialised AI skills (e.g. machine learning, natural language processing, etc.). Even so, AI will change the tasks these workers do, and the skills they require. This report provides first estimates for Canada on the effect of artificial intelligence on the demand for skills in jobs that do not require specialised AI skills. The results show that the skills most demanded in occupations highly exposed to AI are management, communication and digital skills. These include skills in budgeting, accounting, written communication, as well as competencies in basic word processing and spreadsheet software. The results also show that, in Canada, demand for social and language skills have increased the most over the past decade in occupations highly exposed to AI. Using a panel of establishments confirms the increasing demand for social and language skills, as well as rising demand for production and physical skills, which may be complementary to AI. However, the establishment panel also finds evidence of decreasing demand for business, management and digital skills in establishments more exposed to AI.
  • 17-May-2024

    English

    Occupational reallocation and mismatch in the wake of the Covid-19 pandemic - Cross-country evidence from an online job site

    Employment has recovered strongly from the COVID-19 pandemic despite large structural changes in labour markets, such as the widespread adoption of digital business models and remote work. We analyse whether the pandemic has been associated with labour reallocation across occupations and triggered mismatches between occupational labour demand and supply using novel data on employers’ job postings and jobseekers’ clicks across 19 countries from the online job site Indeed. Findings indicate that, on average across countries, the pandemic triggered large and persistent reallocation of postings and clicks across occupations. Occupational mismatch initially increased but was back to pre-pandemic levels at the end of 2022 as employers and workers adjusted to structural changes. The adjustment was substantially slower in countries that resorted to short-time work schemes to preserve employment during the pandemic.
  • 14-mai-2024

    Français

    La croissance de l’économie numérique dépasse celle de l’économie dans son ensemble dans les pays de l’OCDE

    Le secteur des technologies de l’information et des communications (TIC) a progressé en moyenne de 6.3 % entre 2013 et 2023, soit près de trois fois plus rapidement que l’ensemble de l’économie, dans les 27 pays de l’OCDE couverts par l’analyse.

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  • 6-May-2024

    English

    Defining AI incidents and related terms

    As AI use grows, so do its benefits and risks. These risks can lead to actual harms ('AI incidents') or potential dangers ('AI hazards'). Clear definitions are essential for managing and preventing these risks. This report proposes definitions for AI incidents and related terms. These definitions aim to foster international interoperability while providing flexibility for jurisdictions to determine the scope of AI incidents and hazards they wish to address.
  • 3-mai-2024

    Français

    Face aux évolutions technologiques rapides, l’OCDE met à jour les Principes sur l’IA

    Lors de la Réunion du Conseil au niveau des Ministres (RCM) de 2024 a été adoptée la version révisée des Principes de l’OCDE sur l’intelligence artificielle (IA), instrument qui a fait date dans ce domaine.

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  • 24-avril-2024

    Français

    Les politiques transformatives et la gouvernance anticipative jouent un rôle clé pour optimiser les avantages et maîtriser les risques liés aux technologies émergentes

    Les Ministres de la science et de la technologie l’ont souligné lors de leur réunion au niveau des Ministres à l’OCDE : il est crucial que les pouvoirs publics développent des approches coordonnées afin de tirer profit des opportunités offertes par les technologies nouvelles et émergentes, et de mieux gérer les risques futurs qui leur sont liés.

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  • 24-April-2024

    English

    OECD Agenda for Transformative Science, Technology and Innovation Policies

    Multiple crises are triggering turbulence, instability and insecurity in contemporary societies, with impacts on economies, the environment, politics, and global affairs. An effective response will require governments to be more ambitious and act with greater urgency in their science, technology and innovation (STI) policies to meet global challenges. Sustained investments and greater directionality in research and innovation activities are needed, and these should coincide with a reappraisal of STI systems and STI policies to ensure they are 'fit-for-purpose' to contribute to transformative change agendas. This policy paper provides a framework to support governments in making these assessments. It identifies six STI policy orientations for transformative change that should guide these assessments. It applies these orientations across multiple areas of STI policy, including R&D funding, the research and innovation workforce, and international R&D co-operation, and outlines a series of concrete policy actions STI policymakers can take to accelerate transformative change.
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