By Date

  • 13-August-2020


    Capital incentive policies in the age of cloud computing - An empirical case study

    This paper assesses whether current policy environments are appropriate for the emergence of cloud computing technology. In particular, this research uses firm level data for Germany and the United Kingdom to examine the impact of capital incentive programmes (a common policy present in most OECD countries) on cloud adoption. The design for many of these policies target investments in physical capital while excluding digital services like the cloud. Firms view digital investments and digital services as substitutes, therefore narrowly defined incentive programmes may actually discourage the use of emerging tools like cloud computing, which are found to enable the growth and performance of young entrants. Overall, the results find that while capital incentive policies encourage firm investments in ICT and other forms of capital, they actually reduce the probability of cloud adoption. Policy makers may therefore need to reconsider the design of capital incentive programmes within their jurisdictions.
  • 10-août-2020


    Pour soutenir la lutte contre le COVID-19, une meilleure harmonisation des réglementations relatives aux essais cliniques s’impose

    Cette note porte sur les obstacles rencontrés dans la mise en place d’essais cliniques internationaux. Elle fournit des informations sur les adaptations qu’il conviendrait d’apporter aux exigences réglementaires pour accélérer les processus et souligne la nécessité d’harmoniser davantage les réglementations entre les différentes autorités de régulation nationales.

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  • 3-August-2020


    Optimising the operation and use of national research infrastructures

    This report is the outcome of a joint activity between Science Europe and the OECD, and presents a generic framework for improving the use and operation of national research infrastructures (RIs), which play a key role in enabling and developing research in all scientific domains and represent an increasingly large share of research investment. It includes two guiding models: one for portfolio management and one for user-base optimisation. These identify the key principles of an effective national RI portfolio management system and the factors that RI managers should consider with regards to optimising the user base of national RIs. Both guiding models account for the diversity of national systems and RI operation approaches. The report also contains a series of more generic policy recommendations and suggested actions for RI portfolio managers and RI managers.
  • 10-July-2020


    Building digital workforce capacity and skills for data-intensive science

    This report looks at the human resource requirements for data-intensive science, focusing primarily on research conducted in the public sector, and the related challenges and training needs. Digitalisation is, to some extent, being driven by science, while simultaneously affecting all aspects of scientific practice. Open science, including access to data, is being widely promoted, and investment in cyber-infrastructures and digital platforms is increasing; but inadequate attention has been given to the skills that researchers and research support professionals need to fully exploit these tools. The COVID-19 pandemic, which struck as this report was being finalised, has underscored the critical importance of data-intensive science and the need for strategic approaches to strengthening the digital capacity and skills of the scientific enterprise as a whole. The report includes policy recommendations for various actors and good practice examples to support these recommendations.
  • 8-July-2020


    OECD case study of Norway’s digital science and innovation policy and governance landscape

    This report describes Norway’s landscape for Digital Science and Innovation Policy (DSIP) - the overarching framework through which governments make intensive use of digital technologies and data resources to support the formulation, delivery and administration of STI policy. The report describes how Norway’s DSIP landscape is shaped by its broader digital government framework and agenda, introduces the main actors in the DSIP system and discusses their main features in relation to their key objectives and the generic purposes of DSIP approaches. Special attention is paid to the role of STI statistics. It concludes by drawing out key findings and potential implications to help the Norwegian government identify opportunities that promote the system’s further development in line with its strategic objectives. This study also provides an indication of the potential opportunities and challenges that other countries might face when developing, implementing and maintaining digital systems for STI policy and administration.
  • 30-June-2020


    Making the Most of Technology for Learning and Training in Latin America

    Digitalisation is transforming the world of work and societies, and creating opportunities to learn and develop skills in new ways, times and places. The adoption and use of digital technologies can help Latin American countries close the skills gap with more advanced economies. Making the Most of Technology for Learning and Training in Latin America demonstrates how Latin American countries can realise the potential of new technologies for skills development in schools and all stages of life. It identifies barriers to accessing ICT infrastructure and connectivity limitations in Latin America, and provides recommendations on how they can be overcome to ensure that all students and citizens can benefit from new technologies for learning. The report explores the relationship between technology use in initial education and students’ performance in Latin America, and how policies can best support teachers as digital tools enter their classrooms. Digitalisation provides new opportunities for lifelong learning and this report examines the potential of open education and MOOCs in reaching those adults who are most in need of training in Latin American countries.
  • 24-juin-2020


    Développer la créativité et l’esprit critique des élèves - Des actions concrètes pour l’école

    La créativité et l’esprit critique sont des compétences essentielles dans des sociétés et des économies complexes, mondialisées et de plus en plus numériques. Si les enseignants et les dirigeants politiques considèrent la créativité et l’esprit critique comme des objectifs importants de l’enseignements, beaucoup éprouvent des difficultés à concevoir comment développer ces compétences dans le cadre scolaire. Afin de rendre les choses plus visibles et tangibles pour les professionnels, l’OCDE a travaillé avec des réseaux d’écoles et d’enseignants dans 11 pays pour développer et tester un ensemble de ressources pédagogiques qui illustrent l’enseignement, l’apprentissage et la progression de la créativité et de l’esprit critique dans l’enseignement primaire et secondaire. Grâce à un portfolio de référentiels de compétences et d’exemples de plans de cours, les enseignants sur le terrain ont fait part de leur retour d’expérience, mis en place les stratégies d’enseignement proposées et rendu compte de leur travail. Des instruments de suivi de l’efficacité de l’expérience pour une étude de validation ont aussi été testés, y compris un retour qualitatif sur le terrain fourni par les coordinateurs d’équipe. Quels sont les composantes principales de la créativité et de l’esprit critique ? Quelles stratégies et approches pédagogiques peuvent adopter les enseignants pour les développer ? Comment les chefs d’établissement peuvent-ils soutenir la formation professionnelle des enseignants ? Dans quelle mesure les enseignants ayant participé au projet ont-ils changé leurs méthodes d’enseignement ? Comment peut-on savoir si cela fonctionne et pour qui ? Ce sont certaines des questions abordées dans cet ouvrage, qui présente les résultats et les leçons de ce projet international.
  • 16-June-2020


    Addressing societal challenges using transdisciplinary research

    This report looks at how transdisciplinary research, which combines knowledge from different scientific disciplines with that of public and private sector stakeholders and citizens, can be used to address complex societal challenges. This includes developing effective responses in acute crises, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as longer-term solutions for sustainability development. In a series of 28 case studies, each of which is briefly summarised in the report, it identifies the key obstacles to effectively implementing transdisciplinary research. Many of these are embedded in the way that research systems are structured and managed and they are amenable to policy intervention. Examples of how various actors, including funding agencies and universities are adapting to better accommodate the requirements of transdisciplinary research are included in the report and related policy actions are ascribed for these actors.
  • 15-juin-2020


    L’OCDE hébergera le Secrétariat du nouveau Partenariat mondial sur l’intelligence artificielle

    L'OCDE hébergera le Secrétariat du nouveau Partenariat mondial sur l’intelligence artificielle (PMIA), une coalition lancée aujourd’hui afin d'encourager l'utilisation responsable de l'intelligence artificielle, dans le respect des droits de l’homme et des valeurs démocratiques. Des précisions sur le rôle de l’OCDE en tant que Secrétariat seront apportées dans les prochains jours.

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  • 11-June-2020


    UN High-level Thematic Debate on the Impact of Rapid Technological Change on the SDGs and Targets

    The format of today’s discussion bears witness to the rapid changes imposed upon us by the global coronavirus pandemic. In fact, Mr President: it was only six months ago that I had the privilege of welcoming you to Paris in person for a meeting of the OECD Council.

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