By Date

  • 21-November-2019


    Health in the 21st Century - Putting Data to Work for Stronger Health Systems

    This report explores how data and digital technology can help achieve policy objectives and drive positive transformation in the health sector while managing new risks such as privacy, equity and implementation costs. It examines the following topics: improving service delivery models; empowering people to take an active role in their health and their care; improving public health; managing biomedical technologies; enabling better collaboration across borders; and improving health system governance and stewardship. It also examines how health workforces should be equipped to make the most of digital technology. The report contains findings from surveys of OECD countries and shares a range of examples that illustrate the potential benefits as well as challenges of the digital transformation in the health sector. Findings and recommendations are relevant for policymakers, health care providers, payers, industry as well as patients, citizens and civil society.
  • 18-November-2019


    The Supply of Medical Isotopes - An Economic Diagnosis and Possible Solutions

    This report explores the main reasons behind the unreliable supply of Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) in health-care systems and policy options to address the issue. Tc-99m is used in 85% of nuclear medicine diagnostic scans performed worldwide – around 30 million patient examinations every year. These scans allow diagnoses of diseases in many parts of the human body, including the skeleton, heart and circulatory system, and the brain. Medical isotopes are subject to radioactive decay and have to be delivered just-in-time through a complex supply chain. However, ageing production facilities and a lack of investment have made the supply of Tc-99m unreliable. This report analyses the use and substitutability of Tc-99m in health care, health-care provider payment mechanisms for scans, and the structure of the supply chain. It concludes that the main reasons for unreliable supply are that production is not economically viable and that the structure of the supply chain prevents producers from charging prices that reflect the full costs of production and supply.
  • 15-November-2019


    Scoping the OECD AI Principles: Deliberations of the expert group on artificial intelligence at the OECD (AIGO)

    As artificial intelligence permeates our societies, its transformational power must be put to the service of people and the planet. This paper presents a common understanding of what an AI system is, as well as a framework detailing the stages of the AI life cycle. This work informed the development of the AI Principles adopted by the OECD Council in 2019.

  • 13-November-2019


    Pharmaceutical Residues in Freshwater - Hazards and Policy Responses

    This report calls for a better understanding of the effects of pharmaceutical residues in the environment, greater international collaboration and accountability distribution, and policy actions to prevent and remedy emerging concerns. Laboratory and field tests show traces of oral contraceptives causing the feminisation of fish and amphibians, and residues of psychiatric drugs altering fish behaviour. Antimicrobial resistance, linked to the overuse of antibiotics, has rapidly escalated into a global health crisis. Unless adequate measures are taken to manage the risks, pharmaceutical residues will increasingly be released into the environment as ageing populations, advances in healthcare, and intensification of meat and fish production spur the demand for pharmaceuticals worldwide. The report outlines a collective, life-cycle approach to managing pharmaceuticals in the environment. A policy mix of source-directed, use-orientated and end-of-pipe measures, involving several policy sectors, can help to improve health and protect the environment.
  • 12-November-2019


    Supporting Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Higher Education in Austria

    The Austrian higher education system has consistently recognised the need to become more entrepreneurial and innovative with a view to supporting the economic, social and cultural development of the country and its regions. Over the past decades, the government has been implementing a broad reform agenda to provide strategic funding, diversify higher education institutions (HEIs) and promote an allocation of students that improves the quality of services and empowers them vis à vis the future of work and society. This review illustrates policy actions promoting the development of entrepreneurial and innovative activities in the Higher Education System and individual HEIs. In addition, based on information gathered during study visits, the review discusses strategies and practices adopted by Austrian HEIs to innovate, engage, and generate value for their own ecosystems and networks. The review is part of a series of national reports implementing the HEinnovate framework. HEinnovate is a holistic framework that the OECD and the European Commission have developed to promote the 'entrepreneurial and innovation agenda' in higher education.
  • 6-November-2019


    Safety Assessment of Foods and Feeds Derived from Transgenic Crops, Volume 3 - Common bean, Rice, Cowpea and Apple Compositional Considerations

    This volume compiles the consensus documents developed by the OECD Working Group for the Safety of Novel Foods and Feeds from 2015 to 2019. It deals with the composition of common bean, rice, cowpea and apple, four important crops for agriculture and food consumption worldwide. The science-based information collated here is intended for use during the regulatory assessment of food/feed products derived from modern biotechnology, i.e. issued from transgenic plants. Compositional considerations are provided for each species, including tables detailing the key nutrients, anti-nutrients, possible toxicants, allergens and other metabolites contained in the products. This essential information and solid data can be used in the comparative approach as part of the novel food/feed safety assessment. It should be of value to crop breeders and applicants for commercial uses of novel foods and feeds, to regulators and risk assessors in national authorities, as well as the wider scientific community. More information can be found at BioTrack Online.
  • 4-novembre-2019


    Vers le numérique : Forger des politiques au service de vies meilleures

    Ce rapport aide les décideurs politiques à optimiser les bénéfices de la transformation numérique pour tous, à favoriser la croissance et améliorer le bien-être. Il reflète les travaux réalisés dans le cadre du projet de l’OCDE sur la transformation numérique durant la période 2017-18 et d’autres travaux de l’OCDE dans ce domaine. Le rapport identifie les vecteurs de la transformation numérique, ainsi que des questions à mieux cerner. Il offre une vision économique et sociale holistique de ses implications sur les tendances clés, leurs effets, et les questions politiques qui en découlent, lesquelles doivent être coordonnées à travers des domaines différents. En outre, le rapport établit un agenda numérique ambitieux pour l’OCDE et au-delà.
  • 30-October-2019


    Risk Governance Scan of Kazakhstan

    This report presents the governance framework in Kazakhstan for managing disaster risks. A wide range of disaster risks are present throughout the national territory, primarily floods, landslides, avalanches, but also extreme cold and heatwaves. The report reviews how the central government sets up a national strategy to manage these disaster risks, and how a national risk governance framework is formulated and executed. It examines the role of the private sector and other non-governmental actors in contributing to resilience at a national and subnational level.
  • 30-octobre-2019


    L’intelligence artificielle dans la société

    Le paysage technique de l’intelligence artificielle (IA) s’est métamorphosé depuis 1950, lorsqu’Alan Turing s’interrogeait pour la première fois sur la capacité des machines à penser. Aujourd’hui, l’IA transforme les économies et les sociétés. Elle promet de générer des gains de productivité, d’améliorer le bien-être et de contribuer à apporter des solutions aux défis mondiaux que sont, par exemple, le changement climatique, l’épuisement des ressources et les crises sanitaires. Cependant, à l’heure où ces applications sont adoptées à travers le monde, leur utilisation soulève un certain nombre d’interrogations et de difficultés ayant trait, entre autres, aux valeurs humaines, à l’équité, à la détermination humaine, à la protection de la vie privée, à la sécurité et à la responsabilité. Le présent rapport contribue à faire émerger une compréhension commune de l’IA, sous sa forme actuelle et dans son évolution à court terme, à travers des relevés du paysage technique, économique, pratique et réglementaire de l’IA et la mise en évidence de grandes considérations de politique publique. Il contribue également à un débat coordonné et cohérent entre les diverses enceintes nationales et internationales.
  • 25-October-2019


    Shaping the Digital Transformation in Latin America - Strengthening Productivity, Improving Lives

    This report discusses policies and approaches to spur sustainable and inclusive digital transformation in the LAC region across seven action areas: enhancing access to digital technologies; strengthening their effective use; enabling digital innovation; ensuring quality jobs for all; promoting an inclusive digital society; strengthening trust; and fostering market openness. The report also aims to contribute to the preparation of an action plan that will support the region’s efforts to reap the benefits of the digital transformation. This publication was prepared to support the discussions of the OECD Latin America and the Caribbean Regional Programme’s Third Ministerial Summit on Productivity 'Harnessing the Digital Transformation to Boost Productivity in in Latin America and the Caribbean'. It draws on OECD work on carried out in the context of the Going Digital project, as well as a range of work specific to the LAC region, such as the OECD-IDB report Broadband Policies for Latin America and the Caribbean, the OECD Reviews of Telecommunication Policies in Mexico and Colombia, and the OECD Going Digital Reviews of Colombia and Brazil.
  • << < 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 > >>