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  • 29-April-2021

    English

    Guidance for a biorefining roadmap for Thailand

    Biorefineries present an alternative to fossil-based production, and can create employment, wealth and the ecosystem needed to make them function. Thailand is establishing a bioeconomy with widespread biorefining as a strategy for future economic growth. There is political will to establish in Thailand, if feasible, small, decentralised biorefineries to which farmers can locally deliver biomass as feedstock, which can then be processed into bio-based products. This would help to relieve rural poverty, which is still a problem in some areas of Thailand despite progress. Developing a biorefining roadmap will help to assess the feasibility of such an initiative.
  • 23-April-2021

    English

    Collaborative platforms for emerging technology - Creating convergence spaces

    Governments, together with partners in industry and civil society, are developing experimental forms of collaborative platforms to provide better linkages between research and innovation, and to promote the development and use of emerging technology. This report analyses 33 case studies from key fields of emerging technology – genomics, advanced materials and engineering biology – and finds that collaborative platforms are most effective when they act as 'convergence spaces' for the fusion of diverse disciplines, actors and technology. It also shows how governance mechanisms shape platform operations and act as policy levers for ordering what amounts to a common pool resource: they aim to maximise tangible and intangible value, realise sustainability models, foment collaboration, and promote technological integration. After presenting cross-cutting and comparative findings on key components of governance, the report concludes with policy implications for the design of existing and future collaborative platforms.
  • 23-April-2021

    English

    Transparency reporting - Considerations for the review of the privacy guidelines

    This report presents evidence on efforts taken by companies to ensure trust in the digital economy through transparency reporting. Focussing on the world’s most widely used social media platforms, online communication services, file-sharing platforms and other online services (many of which are based in the United States), the report identifies both good practices and challenges in transparency reporting. Challenges include limited informative value and comparability, as well as an inability to provide reliable information on the extent to which governments gain access to personal data held by the private sector. A range of actions are proposed to address these challenges, recognising the need to develop a more robust evidence base by expanding the number of countries and companies analysed. This report informed the review of the OECD Privacy Guidelines.
  • 16-avril-2021

    Français

    Science, technologie et innovation: Tableau de bord de l'OCDE

    La nouvelle plateforme STI.Scoreboard offre la possibilité d’extraire, visualiser, comparer et partager plus de 1000 indicateurs statistiques des systèmes de science, technologie et innovation pour les pays de l'OCDE ainsi que plusieurs autres économies.

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  • 13-April-2021

    English

    Mission-oriented innovation policy in Japan - Challenges, opportunities and future options

    This report assesses the potential for mission-oriented innovation policies (MOIPs) to contribute to the sustainable transition in Japan, and examines the challenges and opportunities that MOIPs would present. As part of a series of MOIP national case studies, the report finds that the ongoing ambitious and top-down MOIPs led by the center-of-government build upon a long history of proactive and goal-oriented policy intervention. MOIPs in Japan are the latest step of decades of efforts to reduce the fragmentation and lack of holistic coordination of Japan’s science, technology and innovation policy in order to proactively address societal challenges. Available evaluations of these policies demonstrate very encouraging results in that regards. The study concludes with recommendations to pursue these efforts, including by mainstreaming these policy initiatives across the government structure and complementing them with more bottom-up challenge-based initiatives.
  • 13-April-2021

    English

    What future for science, technology and innovation after COVID-19?

    The COVID-19 crisis may bring lasting socioeconomic changes, also affecting science, technology and innovation (STI). This paper discusses the effects that the COVID-19 crisis could have on the future of STI and its policies, building on lessons learned from past crises, an analysis of diverse sources of early data and insights from expert discussions in international policy fora. Factors shaping the future of STI include the unequal effects of the crisis on R&D spending across sectors, the accelerated adoption of digital tools and techniques, and changes in the openness and inclusiveness of research and innovation ecosystems. The paper also explores how STI policy could experience fundamental changes as resilience, environmental sustainability and inclusiveness become more prominent objectives on policy agendas. This includes experimentation with new data and digital tools for policy purposes and unconventional policy approaches, which could spur the adoption of new and more effective STI policies.
  • 8-April-2021

    English

    Mission-oriented innovation policy in Norway - Challenges, opportunities and future options

    This report assesses the potential for mission-oriented innovation policies (MOIPs) to contribute to the sustainable transition in Norway, and examines the challenges and opportunities that MOIPs would present. As part of a series of MOIP national case studies, the report finds that MOIPs could contribute significantly to alleviating some of the long-standing limitations of Norway’s innovation system, acknowledging the country’s strong advantages for mission-orientation and its innovative policy experimentations, such as the Pilot-E scheme and the CLIMIT programme. It proposes two options for Norway’s future MOIP approach, with corresponding recommendations. Under a ‘scaling-up’ option, Norway would develop a system to manage the implementation of cross-agency schemes in relevant challenge areas. A ‘levelling-up’ option would involve the programming of a pilot mission in the four-year investment plan of the next edition of Norway’s Long Term Plan, with support from high-level policy and political actors.
  • 25-March-2021

    English

    Demand for AI skills in jobs - Evidence from online job postings

    This report presents new evidence about occupations requiring artificial intelligence (AI)-related competencies, based on online job posting data and previous work on identifying and measuring developments in AI. It finds that the total number of AI-related jobs increased over time in the four countries considered – Canada, Singapore, the United Kingdom and the United States – and that a growing number of jobs require multiple AI-related skills. Skills related to communication, problem solving, creativity and teamwork gained relative importance over time, as did complementary software-related and AI-specific competencies. As expected, many AI-related jobs are posted in categories such as 'professionals' and 'technicians and associated professionals', though AI-related skills are in demand, to varying degrees, across almost all sectors of the economy. In all countries considered, the sectors 'Information and Communication', 'Financial and Insurance Activities' and 'Professional, Scientific and Technical Activities' are the most AI job-intensive.
  • 19-mars-2021

    Français

    Principaux indicateurs de la science et de la technologie - Volume 2020 Issue 2

    Cette publication semestrielle présente un jeu d'indicateurs reflétant le niveau et la structure des efforts menés par les pays de l'OCDE et par sept économies non membres (Afrique du Sud, Argentine, Chine, Fédération de Russie, Roumanie, Singapour, Taipei chinois) dans les domaines de la science et de la technologie. Il s'agit de résultats définitifs ou provisoires, et de prévisions établies par les gouvernements. Les indicateurs couvrent plus particulièrement les ressources consacrées aux activités de recherche-développement, les familles de brevets et le commerce international dans les industries intensives en R-D. Cet ouvrage intègre également quelques statistiques économiques de base utilisées pour le calcul des indicateurs. Les séries couvrent une année de référence et les six dernières années pour lesquelles les données sont disponibles.
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  • 1-March-2021

    English

    AI measurement in ICT usage surveys - A review

    This paper takes stock of official statistics on AI use in firms collected through ICT usage surveys. Its aim is to highlight statistically sound data that can be used to guide policymakers and other stakeholders in the complex field of AI. It provides a cross-country comparison of official AI measures in selected OECD countries and international organisations by reviewing the statistical AI definitions developed explicitly for measurement purposes as well as the AI questions in official ICT use surveys. Based on the results of these surveys, the paper provides an international comparison of AI uptake among firms. It also includes a brief overview of smaller-scale non-official measures of AI, which can complement official statistics. In its final part, it makes an initial attempt to match AI policy with the AI measures previously analysed, and highlights possible next steps. This paper is also a contribution to the OECD AI Policy Observatory.
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