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  • 8-June-2021

    English

    OECD Digital Education Outlook 2021 - Pushing the Frontiers with Artificial Intelligence, Blockchain and Robots

    How might digital technology and notably smart technologies based on artificial intelligence (AI), learning analytics, robotics, and others transform education? This book explores such question. It focuses on how smart technologies currently change education in the classroom and the management of educational organisations and systems. The book delves into beneficial uses of smart technologies such as learning personalisation, supporting students with special learning needs, and blockchain diploma credentialing. It also considers challenges and areas for further research. The findings offer pathways for teachers, policy makers, and educational institutions to digitalise education while optimising equity and inclusivity.
  • 3-June-2021

    English

    Evolving public-private relations in the space sector - Lessons learned for the post-COVID-19 era

    Where is the space sector headed? How can public and private actors work together to solve mutual challenges and sustain growth? What is the role of government programmes and funding? This paper addresses these and other questions by reviewing the evolving relationship between public and private actors in the space sector over the last two decades, based on case studies from North America, Europe and Asia. It provides new evidence for navigating the post-Covid-19 era, notably by exploring the range of government roles in supporting space sector innovation and expansion, from funder and developer of space programmes to partner and enabler of private sector growth.
  • 28-mai-2021

    Français

    Intégration régionale dans l’Union pour la Méditerranée - Rapport d'étape

    Intégration régionale dans l’Union pour la Méditerranée : Rapport d’étape analyse les grandes tendances et l’évolution de l’intégration dans la région euro-méditerranéenne. Le rapport examine cinq domaines d’intégration régionale, à savoir l’intégration commerciale, l’intégration financière, l’intégration des infrastructures, la mobilité des personnes, ainsi que la recherche et l’enseignement supérieur. Le rapport présente une analyse originale des modèles et des défis de l’intégration dans la région euro-méditerranéenne, qui met en évidence l’interdépendance des domaines examinés – par exemple, comment accroître le commerce régional sans une connectivité des transports abordable ? Le rapport apporte un nouvel éclairage basé sur l’analyse temporelle d’indicateurs de performances quantitatifs et qualitatifs spécifiques. Près de 100 graphiques et tableaux présentent les données de 42 pays membres de l’Union pour la Méditerranée et, le cas échéant, des pays partenaires de la région. Le rapport fournit des points clés à retenir et des recommandations stratégiques visant à favoriser l’intégration régionale dans chacun des cinq domaines.
  • 26-May-2021

    English

    Productivity dispersion and sectoral labour shares in Europe

    The stability of the labour share of income is a fundamental feature of macroeconomic models, with broad implications for the shape of the production function, inequality, and macroeconomic dynamics. However, empirically, this share has been slowly declining in many countries for several decades, though its causes are subject of much debate. This paper analyses the drivers of labour share developments in Europe at a sectoral level. We begin with a simple shift-share analysis which demonstrates that the decline across countries has been primarily driven by changes within industries. We then use aggregated microdata from CompNet to analyse drivers of sector-level labour shares and to decompose their effects into shifts in the sector average or reallocation of resources between firms. Our main findings are that the advance of globalisation and the widening productivity gap between 'the best and the rest' have negative implications for the labour share. We also find that most of the changes are due to reallocation within sectors providing support for the 'superstar firms' hypothesis. The finding that globalisation has had a negative impact on the labour share is of relevance for policy in the context of the current backlash against globalisation and reinforces the need to ensure benefits of globalisation and productivity are passed on to workers.
  • 20-May-2021

    English

    Reducing the precarity of academic research careers

    This report analyses academic research careers, with a focus on the 'research precariat', defined as postdoctoral researchers holding fixed-term positions without permanent or continuous employment prospects. It identifies policies and practices that aim to improve researchers’ well-being, develop more diverse, equitable and inclusive research systems, attract and retain the best talent in academia, and ultimately improve the quality of science. The report presents a conceptual framework and synthesis of available data and policy information. It draws on a survey of OECD countries that included country notes and interviews with policy officials, funders, representatives of research performing organisations and researchers. It offers recommendations and a set of policy options to improve working conditions and professional development, better link funding to human resource policies, make governance more inclusive, promote equal opportunities and diversity, improve human resource management, promote inter-sectoral and international mobility, and develop the evidence base on research careers.
  • 20-May-2021

    English

    Quantitative indicators for high-risk/high-reward research

    This paper describes the key characteristics of high-risk/high-reward research (HRHR), which has gained considerable interest from policy makers as a way to promote the development of new, ‘out-of-the-box’ ideas. It identifies three dimensions that are accentuated in HRHR research: higher levels of basicness, generality and novelty. These knowledge characteristics are commonly associated with market failure and research that requires public investment because it has large spill-overs, long time horizons and high levels of uncertainty. This is illustrated with examples of specific discoveries embedding each knowledge characteristic and the application of appropriate quantitative measures. The paper concludes with the computation and demonstration of an indicator of novelty that may be particularly well suited for the monitoring and evaluation of HRHR research policies.
  • 18-May-2021

    English

    Effective policies to foster high-risk/high-reward research

    This report analyses policies and research funding mechanisms designed to foster high-risk high-reward (HRHR) research, and explores promising practices for fostering HRHR research in a variety of contexts. The underlying concern is that failure to encourage and support research on risky, ‘out-of-the-box’ ideas may jeopardise a country’s longer-term ability to compete economically, harness science for solving national and global challenges, and contribute to the progress of science as a whole. The analysis in this paper is primarily based on a survey of individual HRHR research funding schemes in different countries, complemented by targeted interviews. This survey was supplemented by an analysis of HRHR research-oriented programmes and by the feedback from an international workshop that included all relevant stakeholders.
  • 12-mai-2021

    Français

    L’impact de la croissance de l'économie du partage et à la demande sur la politique et l’administration de la TVA/TPS

    Ce rapport vise à aider les autorités fiscales à concevoir et à mettre en œuvre une réponse politique efficace en matière de taxe sur la valeur ajoutée/taxe sur les produits et services (TVA/TPS) à la croissance de l'économie du partage et à la demande. L’essor de ce phénomène, alimenté par les plateformes numériques, a transformé un certain nombre d'industries en quelques années seulement. Cette nouvelle réalité fait intervenir de nombreux nouveaux acteurs économiques (souvent des particuliers), qui monétisent (souvent) des biens et services sous-utilisés en les proposant, via des plateformes numériques, pour une utilisation temporaire (« partagée ») par des consommateurs essentiellement privés. Des questions ont été soulevées quant à savoir si les cadres de politique et d'administration existants en matière de TVA/TPS sont suffisamment capables de faire face à cette nouvelle réalité économique, notamment en vue de protéger les recettes de la TVA/TPS et de minimiser les distorsions économiques. Ce rapport présente les éléments essentiels d'une stratégie globale de politique TVA/TPS à prendre en compte par les autorités fiscales pour y répondre. Il analyse les principales caractéristiques de l'économie du partage et à la demande et ses principaux modèles économiques, il identifie les défis et opportunités associés en matière de TVA/TPS et présente un large éventail de mesures et d'approches possibles pour la mise en œuvre d’une réponse politique efficace. Cela comprend des orientations détaillées sur le rôle que les plateformes numériques peuvent jouer dans la facilitation et l'amélioration du respect des règles de la TVA/TPS dans l'économie du partage et à la demande.
  • 7-May-2021

    English

    To what extent can blockchain help development co-operation actors meet the 2030 Agenda?

    Blockchain is mainstreaming, but the number of blockchain for development use-cases with proven success beyond the pilot stage remain relatively few. This paper outlines key blockchain concepts and implications in order to help policymakers reach realistic conclusions when considering its use. The paper surveys the broad landscape of blockchain for development to identify where the technology can optimise development impact and minimise harm. It subsequently critically examines four successful applications, including the World Food Programme’s Building Blocks, Oxfam’s UnBlocked Cash project, KfW’s TruBudget and Seso Global. As part of the on-going work co-ordinated by the OECD’s Blockchain Policy Centre, this paper asserts that post-COVID-19, Development Assistance Committee (DAC) donors and their development partners have a unique opportunity to shape blockchain’s implementation.
  • 5-May-2021

    English

    A new era of digitalisation for ocean sustainability? - Prospects, benefits, challenges

    As the United Nations Decade on Ocean Science for Sustainable Development begins, this paper explores recent and likely future digital technologies - especially in the field of ocean observation - that will contribute to ocean sustainability. It examines advances that could lead to substantial improvements in the data collection and analysis of the impact of climate change and human activity on marine ecosystems, while also contributing to the monitoring and reduction of the ecological footprint of ocean-related economic activity. The paper also provides preliminary reflections on how the COVID-19 pandemic might affect digitalisation in the ocean economy, and what strategies could help support ocean research and innovation during and after the crisis.
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