The effective control of animal diseases and zoonoses requires co-ordinated policy action among countries. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), an intergovernmental organisation, offers a comprehensive framework increasing transparency on animal disease status, strengthening national veterinary services, and facilitating safe international trade of live animals and animal products. To achieve these objectives, OIE Members adopt a number of voluntary normative instruments, commonly referred to as OIE’s international standards. While the OIE works to support its Members in implementation, Members continue to face challenges in the use of these standards. This OECD study provides a diagnostic of the current state of play of OIE standards and of the data collection mechanisms that are (or may be) used to gather information on how they are implemented domestically. Based on this diagnostic, the OECD provides recommendations to support the OIE in establishing an Observatory to enhance the use and effectiveness of its standards.