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Publications


  • 8-July-2021

    English

    The return on human (STEM) capital in Belgium

    Whilst overall productivity growth is stalling, firms at the frontier are still able to capture the benefits of the newest technologies and business practices. This paper uses linked employer-employee data covering all Belgian firms over a period of almost 20 years and investigates the differences in human capital between highly productive firms and less productive firms. We find a clear positive correlation between the share of high-skilled and STEM workers in a firm's workforce and its productivity. We obtain elasticities of 0.20 to 0.70 for a firm's productivity as a function of the share of high-skilled workers. For STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) workers, of all skill levels, we find elasticities of 0.20 to 0.45. More importantly, the elasticity of STEM workers is increasing over time, whereas the elasticity of high-skilled workers is decreasing. This is possibly linked with the increasing number of tertiary education graduates and at the same time increased difficulties in filling STEM-related vacancies. Specifically, for high-skilled STEM workers in the manufacturing sector, the productivity gain can be as much as 4 times higher than the gain from hiring additional high-skilled non-STEM workers. To ensure that government efforts to increase the adoption of the latest technologies and business practices within firms lead to sustainable productivity gains, such actions should be accompanied by measures to increase the supply and mobility of human (STEM) capital. Without a proper supply of skills, firms will not be able to reap the full benefits of the digital revolution.
  • 8-July-2021

    English

    Azerbaijan 2021 Energy Policy Review

    Oil and gas continue to dominate Azerbaijan’s economy and provide most of its export and government revenue. While these resources have sharply raised the country’s living standards since the late 1990s and remain plentiful, the long-term outlook for this economic model is uncertain. Oil production is declining and major oil and gas importing countries have pledged to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to net-zero by mid-century, implying little demand three decades from now for oil or gas without carbon capture and storage. This report assesses the energy sector and related economic challenges facing Azerbaijan. It proposes several ways to respond by increasing the efficiency and diversity of domestic energy supply and use. The overriding recommendation is a gradual transition to competitive markets with significant private sector participation and energy prices that reflect the cost of production. The withdrawal of subsidies should be accompanied by support measures for those most in need. Such a transition would attract new market entrants and new investments, helping to develop Azerbaijan’s significant solar and wind potential, and limiting greenhouse gas emissions. These recommendations are in line with efforts already underway in Azerbaijan. Prompted by the oil price shock in 2014-15, the government has recently drafted proposals for electricity and gas market reforms, as well as laws on energy efficiency and renewable energy. The country’s first specific energy strategy is also nearing completion. The report encourages Azerbaijan to move swiftly to adopt all these proposals and implement them effectively to ensure secure and sustainable energy in the future.
  • 8-juillet-2021

    Français

    La gouvernance au service des jeunes, de la confiance et de la justice intergénérationnelle - Des politiques adaptées à toutes les générations ?

    Les transformations d’ampleur planétaire – du vieillissement de la population à la transition numérique en passant par l’accentuation des inégalités et le changement climatique – engendrent de profondes incertitudes pour les jeunes et les générations futures, et ce malgré un accès sans précédent à l’information, à l’éducation et à la technologie. La pandémie du COVID-19 a exacerbé les problèmes préexistants concernant le bien-être mental et l’emploi des jeunes, et a suscité de nouvelles inquiétudes quant à la viabilité des finances publiques. Ce rapport fournit la première évaluation comparative des politiques, lois, capacités institutionnelles et outils de gouvernance mis en place par 42 gouvernements nationaux et l’Union Européenne pour promouvoir l’autonomisation des jeunes et la justice intergénérationnelle. Il définit des éléments de comparaison internationale dans trois grands domaines : 1) Accompagner la transition des jeunes vers l’autonomie ; 2) Renforcer leur participation et leur représentation dans la vie publique, ainsi que leur confiance à l’égard des institutions publiques, et 3) Assurer l’équité des résultats de l’action publique pour toutes les générations. Enfin, il fournit des orientations concrètes à l’intention des responsables publics, des organisations de la société civile et des jeunes désireux de bâtir un présent et un avenir où aucune génération ne sera laissée pour compte.
  • 8-July-2021

    English

    New evidence on intangibles, diffusion and productivity

    This paper presents new evidence on the impact of intangible capital on productivity dispersion within industries. It first shows that rise in productivity dispersion after 2000 is more pronounced in intangible-intensive industries; then analyses the link between intangible capital intensity and productivity dispersion both at the top and at the bottom of the productivity distribution, and in different industries. The findings suggest that industries that have experienced a stronger increase in intangible investment have also seen a steeper rise in productivity dispersion both at the top and at the bottom of the productivity distribution. While the results at the top seem to be associated with the scalability of intangible capital – which is likely to disproportionally benefit high-productivity firms and incumbents – dispersion at the bottom appears to be linked to complementarities between intangible investment and factors like digital intensity, trade openness and venture capital.
  • 7-July-2021

    English

    Bringing Household Services Out of the Shadows - Formalising Non-Care Work in and Around the House

    Despite years of growth in the number of women in paid work, gender roles in unpaid housework have remained remarkably rigid. Unpaid housework can be outsourced to non-care household service providers, such as cleaners or housekeepers, however, high prices, a substantial tax burden and a lack of easy access impose barriers to greater formalisation of the household service sector. With the aim of increasing work-life balance for households, in particular for women in employment, and reducing the wide-ranging practice of undeclared employment, a number of OECD countries have implemented policies to formalise and boost the provision of non-care household services. This report illustrates the importance of the non-care household service sector and reviews international approaches in formalising the non-care household service market, ranging from providing tax incentives or granting social vouchers, to identify good practice. To highlight the potential economic gains that could follow from easing the housework burden, the report also estimates the economic value of unpaid housework provided by men and women.
  • 7-July-2021

    English

    Ensuring the Adequacy of Funding Arrangements for Decommissioning and Radioactive Waste Management

    The world’s nuclear power reactors are ageing, with the majority approaching the end of their planned operational lifetimes in the coming years. The adequacy of funding for decommissioning and radioactive waste management (RMW) thus increasingly commands the attention of decision-makers. This report by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) combines a solid conceptual framework with the insights from twelve case studies of NEA member countries to propose a new approach to the adequacy of funding that is both robust and flexible. Current funding systems in NEA countries are overall adequate. The challenges ahead however are formidable: decommissioning and RWM are moving from design to implementation, returns on assets are low and societal preferences can evolve. The very long-term nature of the solutions, in particular for radioactive waste disposal, is also not easily compatible with the economic lifetimes of the original liability holders. This requires that all elements of the system – accrued funds, expected future returns, the lifetimes of nuclear power plants, the expected costs of politically sustainable technical solutions and the liabilities for residual risks – are reviewed and realigned at regular intervals. Complementing existing approaches with such a circular approach will strengthen funding arrangements and ensure their adequacy for decades to come.
  • 6-July-2021

    English

    Enhancing digital diffusion for higher productivity in Spain

    The increased adoption of digital technologies has been transforming the Spanish economy. The COVID-19 crisis is expected to speed up this process. The new digital strategy, ‘Digital Spain 2025’, features a number of ambitious objectives in a timely manner. There is a need to promote digital diffusion across the country by developing communication infrastructure further, while addressing the digital divide across regions and ensuring digital security. Addressing key bottlenecks, such as people’s skills, through education policies at every level, would enable the use of digital technologies and boost productivity growth. This would help in particular laggard firms and low-skilled people, making the benefits of digitalisation shared by all. In parallel, R&D should be enhanced to lift the capacity of firms to adopt and use digital technologies effectively, resulting in improving their business models and products. Finally, business dynamism should be revitalised to encourage risk taking among firms, thus facilitating digital diffusion, while ensuring an efficient allocation of capital.
  • 6-July-2021

    English

    Gender equality and fragility

    Gender equality and fragility are inextricably linked. Addressing issues of gender inequality in fragile contexts requires systematic approaches that work through the complexity of fragility. It requires contextual understanding of social norms, political sensitivities, environmental concerns, and other risks that continue to perpetuate fragility. As part of the 2020 States of Fragility series, this working paper unpacks the deep‑rooted linkages between gender inequalities and fragility; provides an analysis of gender within the current OECD Fragility Framework; and looks to areas of improvement for understanding and addressing these inequalities.
  • 5-July-2021

    English

    Competitiveness in South East Europe 2021 - A Policy Outlook

    The future sustainable economic development and well-being of citizens in South East Europe depend on greater economic competitiveness. Reinforcing the region’s economic potential in a post-COVID-19 context requires a holistic, inclusive and growth‑oriented approach to policy making. Against the backdrop of enhanced European Union (EU) accession prospects and a drive towards deeper regional integration, the governments of the six Western Balkan (WB6) economies have demonstrated a renewed commitment to enacting policy reforms. The third edition of Competitiveness in South East Europe: A Policy Outlook comprehensively assesses policy reforms in the WB6 economies across 16 policy dimensions crucial to their competitiveness. It leverages a highly participatory assessment process, which brought together the views of OECD experts, WB6 policy makers and local non-governmental stakeholders to create a balanced and realistic depiction of their performance. The report seeks to provide WB6 policy makers with a multi-dimensional benchmarking tool, enabling them to compare performance against regional peers as well as OECD good practices, and to design future policies based on rich evidence and actionable policy recommendations. Economy-specific profiles complement the regional assessment for the first time in this edition of Competitiveness in South East Europe: A Policy Outlook, and provide each WB6 economy with an in-depth analysis of their competitive potential as well as policy recommendations tailored to their specific challenges to inform their structural economic reforms and sustainable development agenda.
  • 5-juillet-2021

    Français

    Perspectives agricoles de l’OCDE et de la FAO 2021-2030

    Fruit de la collaboration entre l’Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques (OCDE) et l’Organisation des Nations Unies pour l’alimentation et l’agriculture (FAO), les Perspectives agricoles de l'OCDE et de la FAO 2021‑2030 s’appuient aussi sur des contributions des pays membres et d’organisations internationales spécialisées dans les produits de base. Elles contiennent une évaluation consensuelle de ce que pourrait être l’évolution, dans les dix ans à venir, des marchés nationaux, régionaux et mondiaux des produits agricoles, halieutiques et aquacoles et des biocarburants, et servent de référence à des analyses prospectives et à la planification de l’action publique. Les Perspectives agricoles de l'OCDE et de la FAO 2021‑2030 présentent les tendances régissant les marchés agricoles pour les dix prochaines années. Des progrès sont attendus sur de nombreux fronts importants, mais pour mener à bien le Programme à l’horizon 2030 et atteindre les Objectifs de développement durable (ODD), le secteur agricole devra mettre en place des actions concertées et de nouvelles améliorations. Des informations supplémentaires sont fournies à l’adresse suivante : www.agri-outlook.org.
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