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Publications


  • 8-September-2022

    English

    Exploring the consequences of greater price transparency on the dynamics of pharmaceutical markets

    For some time, governments, stakeholders and civil society have been voicing the need for greater transparency in pharmaceutical pricing. The 2018 OECD report Pharmaceutical Innovation and Access to Medicines suggested that increased price transparency could promote public accountability, while potentially delivering efficiencies to health systems by including economic considerations in coverage, treatment decisions and budget allocation. Despite this, precisely what should be made more transparent, and how greater transparency would affect the functioning of markets, have been poorly characterised. To help frame the policy debate, the OECD undertook an exploration of the potential consequences of greater price transparency on market dynamics. The work included a roundtable and a series of semi-structured interviews, with participation by 19 experts in pharmaceutical pricing, economics of pharmaceutical markets, competition, and law. With an extensive review of the current practice and relevant literature as a preface, this report presents the key findings from those consultations.
  • 8-September-2022

    English

    Framework for industry’s net-zero transition - Developing financing solutions in emerging and developing economies

    The manufacturing industry is a major source of global carbon dioxide emissions. Industrial production will continue to shift to emerging and developing economies. New investments are needed in low-carbon technologies to align industry’s growth with countries’ net-zero emission targets. In order to reduce the risks associated with the high cost and low maturity of the many needed low-carbon technologies, scaling up finance from both public and private financial sources will be crucial. OECD’s new 'Framework for industry’s net-zero transition' is a step-by-step approach to assist emerging and developing economies in designing solutions for financing and to improve the enabling conditions that can accelerate industry’s transition. Outcomes of the Framework implementation in emerging and developing economies will contribute to the broader climate and finance policies and it can help to facilitate international co-operation for transition at scale.
  • 7-September-2022

    English

    Tax Capacity Building - A Practical Guide to Developing and Advancing Tax Capacity Building Programmes

    The report Tax Capacity Building: A Practical Guide to Developing and Advancing Tax Capacity Building Programmes aims to assist tax administrations globally in advancing their tax capacity building programmes by describing good practices, by looking at tools and approaches that improve co-ordination, and by sharing knowledge. While the report primarily focuses on the development of a tax administration’s own capacity-building programme, elements of this report may also prove useful to those providing other forms of assistance, for example, through the support of programmes undertaken by the domestic development agency or through the support of regional or multilateral initiatives.
  • 7-septembre-2022

    Français

    Intégrité et sécurité dans l’écosystème mondial de la recherche

    Les responsabilités en matière d’intégrité et de sécurité de la recherche sont réparties entre de multiples acteurs de l’écosystème scientifique international. Parmi eux figurent les administrations nationales, les organismes de financement de la recherche, les établissements de recherche, les universités, les associations académiques et les organisations intergouvernementales. Le présent rapport décrit les initiatives et mesures prises par ces différents acteurs pour préserver la sécurité nationale et économique tout en protégeant la liberté de questionnement, en favorisant la coopération scientifique internationale et en œuvrant en faveur de l’ouverture et de la non-discrimination. Il présente des exemples de mesures prises pour éviter l’ingérence étrangère, gérer les risques et favoriser la confiance dans la science à l’avenir, et il formule des recommandations afin d’aider les pays à se doter de politiques efficaces pour renforcer la sécurité et, plus largement, l’intégrité de la recherche.
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  • 7-September-2022

    English

    Implementing the OECD Frascati Manual - Proposed reference items for business R&D surveys

    This working paper contains guidance, of a voluntary and indicative nature, on the implementation of business R&D surveys, consistent with the standards and proposals contained in the OECD Frascati Manual. The document is oriented towards experts in charge of designing and implementing official R&D surveys, but may be also valuable to academics and researchers with a similar practical orientation. It aims to promote widespread testing and implementation in view of a potential future revision of the Frascati Manual or release of complementary annexes.
  • 7-September-2022

    English

    Policies for resilient local economies

    The COVID-19 pandemic has critically tested OECD economies, with major differences in economic repercussions at the subnational level. The pandemic can be characterised as a combination of shocks to local economies: (i) a recession, (ii) a supply-side shock mirroring a natural disaster, and (iii) the economic and workplace adjustments accelerated by pre-existing megatrends (e.g. automation, green transition). This paper reviews the empirical evidence for effective policies from across the OECD to strengthen local economic resilience through support for people, firms and places. There is a strong need for effective policies in times of recessions, natural disasters and long-term structural change. Policies that strengthen economic resilience strongly overlap with policies for local productivity growth and vice-versa. Moreover, some policies aiming to increase resilience through adding redundancy in production or infrastructure can serve productivity in the long-term.
  • 6-September-2022

    English

    Centre of government scan of Bulgaria - Strengthening strategic decision-making at the centre of government

    The OECD Centre of Government Scan of Bulgaria assesses the functioning and organisation of the centre of government (CoG) in Bulgaria. It focuses on three main areas: 1) the functions and mandates of the CoG to perform a strategic and steering role, 2) the CoG’s supportive role in decision- and policy-making systems, and 3) strategic planning and the CoG’s ability to define government priorities across government and translate them into measurable objectives. The Scan forms part of the project 'Driving Public Administration Reform Forward in Bulgaria' which aims to support the implementation of Bulgaria’s reform priorities. Together with the Public Integrity Scan and Regulatory Policy Scan this policy paper forms part of the governance scan series carried out with the financial support from the European Union via the European Commission's Directorate-General for Structural Reform Support.
  • 6-September-2022

    English

    Young people’s environmental sustainability competence - Emotional, cognitive, behavioural, and attitudinal dimensions in EU and OECD countries

    The paper is the first in a series of two papers mapping young people’s environmental sustainability competence in EU and OECD countries that were prepared as background for the forthcoming OECD Skills Outlook 2023 publication. The papers are the results of a collaboration between the OECD Centre for Skills and the European Commission - Joint Research Centre (Unit B4) on students’ environmental sustainability competence. The second paper is titled: ‘The environmental sustainability competence toolbox: From leaving a better planet to our children to leaving better children for our planet’.
  • 6-September-2022

    English

    The environmental sustainability competence toolbox - From leaving a better planet for our children to leaving better children for our planet

    The paper is the second in a series of two papers mapping young people’s environmental sustainability competence in EU and OECD countries that were prepared as background for the forthcoming OECD Skills Outlook 2023 publication. The papers are the results of a collaboration between the OECD Centre for Skills and the European Commission - Joint Research Centre (Unit B4) on students’ environmental sustainability competence. The first paper is titled ‘Young people’s environmental sustainability competence: Emotional, cognitive, behavioural and attitudinal dimensions in EU and OECD countries.
  • 6-September-2022

    English

    Regulatory policy scan of Bulgaria - Promoting a sound regulatory framework for citizen well-being and economic growth

    The Regulatory Policy Scan of Bulgaria assesses the country’s regulatory management capacity by taking stock of regulatory policies, institutions and tools, describing trends and recent developments, and identifying gaps in relation to good practices. Improving the entire regulatory policy cycle will ensure that regulations are developed on a foundation of solid evidence and public participation and designed to enhance citizens' security, health and wellbeing at a reasonable cost. Together with the Centre of Government Scan and Public Integrity Scan this policy paper is a part of the governance scan series drafted in the framework of the 'Driving Public Administration Reform Forward' project funded by the European Commission's Directorate-General for Structural Reform Support.
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