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Publications


  • 12-July-2021

    English

    Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage - The Opportunity in Southeast Asia

    Carbon capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS) technologies are set to play an important role in supporting clean energy transitions in Southeast Asia. CCUS can address emissions from the region’s existing power and industrial assets while underpinning new economic opportunities associated with the production of lowcarbon hydrogen and ammonia. Regional co-operation on the development of CO2 transport and storage infrastructure can enable faster and more efficient deployment of CCUS. However, heightened efforts are needed to identify and develop the region’s CO2 storage resources, both on- and offshore. Future investment in CCUS in Southeast Asia will depend on the establishment of legal and regulatory frameworks and policy incentives, with an important role for international finance.
  • 12-July-2021

    English

    Air Quality and Climate Policy Integration in India - Frameworks to deliver co-benefits

    Air pollution has emerged as one of India’s gravest social and environmental problems in recent years. At the same time, the country is experiencing signs of a warming climate with potentially devastating effects in the long term. Energy-related fuel combustion is at the heart of both crises. It is a main source of three major air pollutants, NOX, SO2 and PM2.5, and the largest contributor to India’s CO2 emissions. In many locations, concentrations of particulate matter persistently exceed recommended national and international standards with severe implications for public health. In 2019 alone, India experienced an estimated 1.2 million air pollution-related premature deaths. At the same time, India’s growing economy is driving CO2 emissions, which increased by more than 55% in the last decade, and are expected to rise by 50% to 2040. Today’s energy choices matter for future development, as they have direct and far-reaching implications for the lives of a growing population. Energy-related air pollutants and CO2 emissions often arise from the same sources, therefore the adoption of an integrated approach to tackle both can deliver important co-benefits. This report shows that well designed, coherent policy packages can deliver such synergies if properly implemented. In order to demonstrate co-benefit potential, it provides quantitative analysis that presents the ways in which flagship energy policies can contribute to both air pollution reduction and climate change mitigation in tandem. Four key sectors are assessed for this purpose: captive power plants, industrial energy efficiency, road transport electrification and expanded access to clean cooking. Policy frameworks that accommodate these synergies will provide a more impactful response and deliver durable benefits to the most pressing national health and environmental challenges, while offering great potential for India’s contribution in the global fight against climate change.
  • 12-July-2021

    English

    Spain 2021 Energy Policy Review

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) regularly conducts in-depth peer reviews of the energy policies of its member countries. This process supports energy policy development and encourages the exchange of international best practices and experiences. Since the last IEA review in 2015, Spain has solved a long-standing issue of tariff deficits in its electricity and gas sectors and closed all of its coal mines, which has allowed it to place the energy transition at the forefront of its energy and climate change policies. The current Spanish framework for energy and climate is based on the 2050 objectives of national climate neutrality, 100% renewable energy in the electricity mix, and 97% renewable energy in the total energy mix. As such, it is centred on the massive development of renewable energy, energy efficiency, electrification and renewable hydrogen. Notwithstanding its considerable progress to date on decarbonising and increasing the share of renewables in the electricity sector, Spain’s total energy mix is still heavily dominated by fossil fuels. Notably, the transport, industry and buildings sectors all have considerable work ahead of them to meet the country’s targets for decarbonisation and higher shares of renewables. When all of Spain’s plans and strategies are implemented, a completely different energy sector will emerge in which fossil fuels are no longer dominant and end-user sectors are mostly electrified. Such a transformed energy landscape will come with new challenges and will provide new opportunities. In this report, the IEA provides energy policy recommendations to help Spain effectively manage this transformation of its energy sector.
  • 9-July-2021

    English

    Teachers’ professional learning study: Diagnostic report for Wales

    The Welsh Government asked the OECD to undertake a targeted diagnostic study of Wales’ system for teachers’ Continuing Professional Learning (CPL). Drawing on findings from interviews with Welsh stakeholders and schools, as well as document review, the study team identified strengths and weaknesses of the continuing professional learning system in Wales, as well as opportunities and threats going forward.
  • 9-juillet-2021

    Français

    Panorama des administrations publiques 2021

    L'édition 2021 inclut des indicateurs portant sur les intrants axés sur les finances publiques et l'emploi public ; les indicateurs de processus incluent des données sur les institutions, les pratiques budgétaires, la gestion des ressources humaines, la gouvernance de la réglementation, la passation des marchés publics, la gouvernance de l’infrastructure, l’intégrité du secteur public, et l’ouverture et la transition numérique de l’administration. Les indicateurs de résultat couvrent les principaux résultats des pouvoirs publics (ex. la confiance, l’efficacité politique, la réduction des inégalités) et les indicateurs portant sur l’accessibilité, la réactivité, la qualité et le degré de satisfaction à l’égard des services publics de l’éducation, de la santé et de la justice. Les indicateurs de gouvernance sont utiles pour surveiller et évaluer le progrès des administrations publiques dans les réformes du secteur public.
  • 9-July-2021

    English

    Hydropower Special Market Report - Analysis and forecast to 2030

    The first ever IEA market report dedicated to hydropower highlights the economic and policy environment for hydropower development, addresses the challenges it faces, and offers recommendations to accelerate growth and maintain the existing infrastructure. This report presents ten-year capacity and generation forecasts for reservoir, run-of-river and pumped storage projects across the globe, based on bottom-up country and project-level monitoring.
  • 9-July-2021

    English

    Thailand Power System Flexibility Study

    With the growing share of renewable energy and emerging technologies, establishing and maintaining adequate flexibility is an important part of Thailand’s power system development and modernisation, and the country’s clean energy transition. Power system flexibility is crucial for ensuring security of supply. Thailand’s power sector has two main avenues to enhance its flexibility. One is to enhance the technical flexibility of the system. The other is to change or reform commercial and contractual structures. This study examines flexibility from both the technical and contractual angle, and their interactions, using the current context of Thailand’s power system. For technical flexibility, the report analyses the flexibility requirements and assesses the value of technical flexibility options, including flexible power plants, pumped storage hydro and battery energy storage systems. For contractual flexibility, the report analyses the impacts of existing power purchase agreement and fuel supply contract structures on system flexibility. This report provides recommendations for the system to be able to use the full range of flexibility options in the most cost-effective and secure way.
  • 9-July-2021

    English

    Portugal 2021 Energy Policy Review

    The IEA regularly conducts peer reviews of the energy policies of its member countries. This process supports energy policy development and encourages the exchange of best practices and experiences to help drive secure and affordable energy transitions. Portugal’s energy and climate policies push for carbon neutrality, primarily through broad electrification of energy demand and a rapid expansion of renewable electricity generation, along with increased energy efficiency. There is a strong focus on reducing energy import dependency and maintaining affordable access to energy. In the longerterm Portugal is aiming for hydrogen to play a major role in achieving carbon neutrality. Portugal has made notable progress on decarbonising electricity generation and on electrification of building energy demand, however, the country’s energy mix is still dominated by fossil fuels. The transport, industry and buildings sectors all have considerable work ahead of them to meet Portugal’s targets for increasing the share of renewables, lowering energy demand and reducing emissions. In this report, the IEA provides a range of energy policy recommendations to help Portugal smoothly manage the transition to an efficient and flexible carbon-neutral energy system.
  • 9-July-2021

    English

    Aligning development co-operation to the SDGs in upper-middle income countries - A case study of Peru

    Achieving sustainable development will require all development actors to act together and in synergy, and using comparable metrics to monitor progress. This case study explores whether the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) can be used as a shared framework by all actors to manage development co-operation for results in upper middle-income countries, taking Peru as a case study. The report first lays out Peru’s SDG journey: its vision of the Goals as an anchor for policy coherence, and how its domestic policies align with them. It then discusses how well development co-operation aligns to the SDGs in Peru, analysing the related enablers, drivers and challenges. The report also examines how to set up monitoring approaches that support SDG measurement in Peru. Finally, it suggests ways to overcome a number of technical, political and organisational challenges that limit the use of the SDGs – some of which are unique to development co-operation delivery in upper middle-income countries.
  • 9-July-2021

    English

    Aligning development co-operation to the SDGs in small island developing states - A case study of Samoa

    This case study explores whether the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) can be used as a shared framework for results by development co-operation actors in Samoa. The study offers an introduction to Samoa’s progress in mainstreaming the SDGs in national policy making, as well as in monitoring the SDG targets and indicators. It then focuses on the experiences of development co-operation partners in aligning their country-level programmes and frameworks with the SDGs, and identifies enabling factors, drivers and obstacles that contribute to SDG alignment and monitoring in Samoa. The study concludes with recommendations for both the government and its development partners to increase the collective use of the SDG framework and improve policy coherence, effectiveness and sustainable impact of all development efforts.
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