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  • 13-July-2021

    English

    Strengthening Economic Resilience Following the COVID-19 Crisis - A Firm and Industry Perspective

    The crisis triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic has been unlike any other the world has experienced, requiring social distancing and restrictions on mobility, and rendering some economic activity impossible. This publication explores and compares the characteristics that have affected the ability of firms, workers and consumers to maintain production, employment and consumption during the COVID-19 crisis, across industries and countries. It takes an analytical forward-looking perspective, considering a broad collection of indicators and evidence to guide policies. The aspects covered centre around topics of business dynamics; productivity; innovation and digital technologies; interconnectedness; inclusiveness; and skills. The report incorporates both a short-term perspective – analysing the supply restrictions and lockdowns that have characterised containment responses – and a medium- to long-term view, focusing on changes in demand that have arisen through recessionary effects and changes in preferences. The purpose of this publication is to provide insights to policy makers in three ways. First, by providing an overview of the different channels through which the crisis has affected firms differently across industries; then, by identifying country characteristics which may mediate these channels and mitigate or amplify the impacts of this and future shocks on the economy; and finally, by exploring systematic differences in the impact across population subgroups and the implications for policy.
  • 13-July-2021

    English

    What’s Next? Lessons on Education Recovery - Findings from a Survey of Ministries of Education amid the COVID-19 Pandemic

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the World Bank and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) have collaborated in the third round of the Survey on National Education Responses to COVID-19 School Closures, administered by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) and OECD to Ministry of Education officials. The questions covered four levels of education: preprimary, primary, lower secondary and upper secondary. While the first two rounds of the survey were implemented during the periods May–June and July–October 2020, respectively, the third round was implemented during the period February–June 2021. In total, 143 countries responded to the questionnaire. Thirty-one countries submitted responses to the OECD ('OECD survey') and 112 countries responded to the UIS ('UIS survey'). Seven countries responded to both surveys. In these instances, the more complete set responses were used in analysis.
  • 13-July-2021

    English

    Dynamics of farm performance and policy impacts: Main findings

    Increasing productivity at farm level is a key policy objective across most countries and fundamental to the overall performance of agricultural and food systems. This paper applies dynamic statistical methods to farm level data in order to identify the determinants of farm performance over time, in terms of productivity and measures of local sustainability. The analysis sheds light on the effects of policies on productivity, and the links between productivity and sustainability outcomes. It draws on key findings from seven case studies: crop farms in Australia, France, Italy and the United Kingdom (England and Wales); and dairy farms in the Czech Republic, Denmark and Norway, with different sample periods, from the most recent three decades to the last five years. A key finding is that policy changes increasing the degree of decoupling of payments have a positive impact on productivity. Furthermore, with the right incentives, productivity growth can be more locally sustainable insofar as farms can produce more output with less inputs that harm the environment. The detailed background work on the seven samples of crops and dairy farms in the above countries is available in OECD Food, Agriculture and Fisheries Paper N°165.
  • 13-juillet-2021

    Français

    Pastoralisme et violence en Afrique du Nord et de l'Ouest

    Cette étude examine l’évolution géographique et temporelle de la violence impliquant les communautés pastorales. Elle s’appuie sur l’analyse de plus de 36 000 évènements violents en Afrique du Nord et de l’Ouest entre janvier 1997 et avril 2020 dans lesquels 206 groupes pastoraux ont été impliqués, pour identifier au niveau régional des schémas plus larges de violence pastorale au cours des deux dernières décennies. Celle-ci s’est intensifiée dans la région, comme en témoigne la forte croissance du nombre d’événements et de victimes cette dernière décennie. Une compréhension plus fine du rôle des pasteurs au regard de cette violence devient cruciale pour des politiques plus efficaces, menant vers une paix durable.
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  • 13-July-2021

    English

    Dynamics of farm performance and policy impacts: Case studies - Case Studies

    This paper provides detailed farm level data evidence on the dynamics of farm performance from case studies covering crop farms in Australia, France, Italy and the United Kingdom (England and Wales), and dairy farms in the Czech Republic, Denmark and Norway, with different recent sample periods of five to thirty years. An increase in productivity over time is common to all countries and most crop farm classes, but productivity dynamics vary significantly. In Australia, strong productivity growth among the most productive crop farms has led to an increase in the gap between the highest and lowest performing farms; whereas in France, Italy and the United Kingdom, productivity growth was weak among the most productive crop farms and the lowest performing farms closed the productivity gap. Productivity also increased among dairy farms, with an increasing gap between the most and the least productive farm classes in the three sample countries. The impact of policy changes on performance dynamics is analysed for decoupled payments in France and England, and dairy payments in the Czech Republic. The main findings across countries and policy implications are discussed in OECD Food, Agriculture and Fisheries Paper N°164.
  • 12-July-2021

    English

    OECD Investment Policy Reviews: Uruguay

    In July 2020, the Investment Committee recommended to Council to invite Uruguay to become the 50th adherent to the OECD Declaration on International Investment and Multinational Enterprises. This OECD Investment Policy Review of Uruguay documents the progress made in recent years to align investment policies with the national development strategy in pursuit of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The Review also assesses remaining challenges in improving the business climate, in particular the actions needed to establish an enabling responsible business environment and ensure full application of the Declaration. Uruguay’s success in attracting more and better investment will make its economy more resilient and better prepared to accelerate the recovery after COVID-19.
  • 12-July-2021

    English

    OECD Compendium of Productivity Indicators

    This Webbook provides a set of cross-country comparable statistics on labour productivity levels, the contributions of labour, capital services and multifactor productivity (MFP) to GDP growth, industry contributions to labour productivity growth, labour productivity gaps between SMEs and large firms, the evolution and composition of investment, the decoupling between real wages and productivity, and labour income share developments. It also includes a special chapter on productivity measurement and analysis at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • 12-July-2021

    English

    Main Findings from the 2020 Risks that Matter Survey

    The COVID-19 pandemic has spurred perhaps the largest expansion of social protection systems in seventy years. Yet many people are still deeply affected by the crisis and are calling for even more help. Drawing on 25 000 responses across 25 OECD countries, the 2020 Risks that Matter survey finds that people are worried about keeping their jobs, paying the bills and staying healthy. Almost seven out of ten respondents say that their government should be doing more to ensure their economic and social security, and many are willing to pay more in taxes to support this. The perspectives presented in this report offer important lessons for how to expand and reform social protection as our societies and economies slowly start to recover from the pandemic.
  • 12-July-2021

    English

    The Potential Role of Carbon Pricing in Thailand’s Power Sector

    Thailand is committed to playing its part in the international efforts aimed at addressing climate issues. As it is for most countries, the power sector in Thailand is among the largest emitters, accounting for 38% of energy-related CO2 emissions. Hence, reducing the emissions from this sector is fundamental in reducing the country’s total emissions. This report explores the potential role of carbon pricing in driving emissions reduction in power generation and supporting a clean energy transition in the country. Building on the understanding of the current power market structure and future development plans, this report leverages on the results from in-depth 2030 power production cost modelling to assess the potential impacts of carbon pricing on power generation dispatch and investment, and the resulting implications on emissions and costs. The recommendations arising from the assessment suggest that carbon pricing can play an active role in reducing the emissions from Thailand's power sector, with measures to mitigate the potential costs and distributional impacts.
  • 12-July-2021

    English

    Lithuania 2021 Energy Policy Review

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) regularly conducts in-depth peer reviews of the energy policies of its member, partner and accession countries. This process supports energy policy development and encourages the exchange of international best practices and experiences. Lithuania has made strong progress towards realising its vision of a secure, competitive, sustainable and innovative energy system in the Baltic region. The government supported major reforms of the electricity and natural gas markets, and further integrated with the EU energy system and markets. Thanks to the expansion of renewable energy sources, notably bioenergy and wind, the carbon intensity of the power and heat sector has decreased over the past decade. Nevertheless, emissions have been on the rise, notably in the transport sector. Lithuania will need to make energy efficiency a priority, design a strong renewable strategy, and reform energy taxes to underpin its ambitious targets. This kind of clean energy leadership can drive emissions reductions up to 2050. In this report, the IEA provides energy policy recommendations to help Lithuania accelerate its energy transition towards its ambitious 2050 targets for climate neutrality.
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