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Publications


  • 29-April-2024

    English

    Increasing the impact of supreme audit institutions through external engagement - Compendium of European experiences with developing effective relationships between SAIs and non-governmental stakeholders

    Supreme audit institutions (SAIs) are a critical part of public accountability systems. They ‘watch’ over governments’ use of public money and report about it publicly, helping to increase transparency. SAIs have an interest in strongly engaging with external stakeholders – including citizens – to make sure that their work is relevant, understood and used to hold governments to account. This paper provides a compilation of European SAIs’ practices on communication, co-operation and collaboration with external partners and is intended to provide inspiration to SAIs of EU candidate countries and potential candidates to further strengthen their engagement with their non-governmental stakeholders.
  • 29-April-2024

    English

    Towards Balanced Regional Development in Croatia - From Strategy Design to Implementation

    Since joining the EU in 2013, Croatia’s macroeconomic performance has improved significantly. At the same time, large demographic and socio-economic disparities across Croatian regions persist. These trends provide the backdrop against which Croatia has reformed its legislative and strategic planning framework for regional development. Such reforms culminated in the adoption of the National Development Strategy 2030, which includes balanced regional development among its main long-term objectives. They have also led to the creation of regional development agencies, and the design of development plans at the county and local levels. This report assesses the extent to which Croatia’s multi-level governance system is supporting its regional development objectives. In particular, it provides an overview of the country’s regional development performance on several demographic, economic and well-being indicators. From there, it considers how the regional development reforms adopted since 2014 affect the ability of national and subnational governments to design, implement, fund, monitor and evaluate place-based regional development plans. Finally, this report provides practical recommendations to help national and subnational policy makers develop and implement strategic frameworks to meet their territorial development objectives and deliver tangible results to communities across the country.
  • 28-April-2024

    English

    Glossary of Key Terms in Evaluation and Results-Based Management for Sustainable Development (Second Edition)

    This Glossary defines concepts and terms commonly used in evaluation and results-based management. It provides a shared understanding to support the design, management, monitoring and evaluation of interventions for sustainable development. As a reference document, it is helpful for those commissioning, managing, or conducting evaluations, as well as people involved in strategy or programme development, management and implementation. While originally developed for international development co-operation, the Glossary can be applied in any field of public policy and is also useful for civil society, academia, and other non-state actors. This second edition includes updated content, including new definitions for the widely used evaluation criteria – relevance, coherence, effectiveness, efficiency, impact and sustainability – endorsed by the OECD Development Assistance Committee in 2019. It also provides minor updates to the original text to reflect current good practice. As concepts and language are constantly evolving, the document will be revisited and updated in due course.
  • 27-April-2024

    English

    Offshoring, Reshoring, and the Evolving Geography of Jobs - A Scoping Paper

    While the second half of the 20th century was characterised by a growing integration of the global economy, in recent years there have been growing calls for protectionism and reshoring. At the same time, COVID-19 resulted in higher levels of remote working, which showed that many jobs could be done from anywhere and could, in theory, be offshored. The future of offshoring and reshoring is therefore highly uncertain. This document summarises some of the key issues and trends with regards to offshoring and reshoring. It then sets out a research agenda which would result in a better understanding the future of offshoring and reshoring and their impact on domestic labour markets, which would help policy makers in OECD countries plan for the changes that lie ahead.
  • 26-April-2024

    English

    Social and Emotional Skills for Better Lives - Findings from the OECD Survey on Social and Emotional Skills 2023

    Social and Emotional Skills for Better Lives presents results from the OECD’s Survey on Social and Emotional Skills (SSES) 2023. SSES is the largest international effort to collect data on these skills among 10- and 15-year-old students. The report explores how the following skills differ by socio-demographic groups and how they relate to key life outcomes: task performance skills (persistence, responsibility, self-control and achievement motivation); emotional regulation skills (stress-resistance, emotional control and optimism); engaging with others skills (assertiveness, sociability and energy); open-mindedness skills (curiosity, creativity and tolerance); and collaboration skills (empathy and trust). The results show that students’ social and emotional skills – or 21st century skills – are linked to better life outcomes, including academic success, greater life satisfaction, healthier behaviours, less test and class anxiety, and more ambitious career plans. The Survey also finds that these skills are inequitably distributed among students by age, gender, and socio-economic background. SSES 2023 was conducted in Bulgaria, Chile, Peru, Spain, Mexico, Ukraine, Bogotá (Colombia), Delhi (India), Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Emilia-Romagna (Italy), Gunma (Japan), Helsinki (Finland), Jinan (China), Kudus (Indonesia), Sobral (Brazil) and Turin (Italy). Results are compared to SSES 2019, which took place before the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • 26-April-2024

    English

    Reimagining Education, Realising Potential

    Students face a future filled with uncertainty and change. For education systems to continue to remain relevant, they must empower students to navigate these changes and succeed in the future by equipping them with the requisite knowledge, skills, attitudes and values. Teachers are key enablers of this endeavour, and it is imperative that governments and teacher organisations collaborate to support teachers in exploring and enacting pedagogies, and designing learning environments that support student attainment of future-ready competencies, through policies, processes and teacher professional development.
  • 26-April-2024

    English

    Digital Technologies for Better Enforcement of Waste Regulation and Elimination of Waste Crime

    Waste crimes create social and economic issues. Offenders commit crime due to either a lack of awareness of waste law or the belief that there is a low risk of being caught and punished. OECD countries are using digital tools to improve their use of resources with the aim to promote compliance and detect violation of waste law. This paper reviews the types of waste crimes, their motivations, and opportunities for governments to use digital tools for their enforcement efforts. It finds that governments have thus far mainly focused on digitalising their data collection and their exchange of information with the public and partners. Further application of digital tools can improve the connection of these tools and test predictive analytical tools such as artificial intelligence systems.
  • 26-April-2024

    English

    Policy Dialogues in Focus for Brazil - International Insights for Digital Education Reform

    This policy brief brings together key reflections from the Policy Dialogues in Focus: International Insights for Digital Education Reform in Brazil. This seminar series from the Education Policy Outlook offered federal and subnational policy makers, civil society actors and researchers in Brazil the opportunity to learn from the experiences of six peer education systems (New South Wales (Australia), Chile, Colombia, Ireland, Korea and Mexico). The seminars also provided insights into other relevant international comparative and empirical work from the OECD. The policy brief builds on the main reflections and insights shared by presenters and participants in the seminars, covering four key topics: digital education governance, infrastructure and resources, capacity building and digital learning resources. The brief proposes pointers for policy makers in Brazil to consider when pursuing the design, implementation and monitoring and evaluation of digital education reforms.
  • 25-avril-2024

    Français

    Les impôts sur les salaires 2024 (version abrégée) - La fiscalité et le genre sous l’angle du deuxième apporteur de revenu

    Cette publication annuelle contient des informations détaillées sur les impôts payés sur les salaires dans les pays de l’OCDE. L'édition de cette année se concentre sur les incitations fiscales pour les seconds apporteurs de revenus dans l'OCDE et sur la façon dont la politique fiscale peut contribuer aux écarts entre les hommes et les femmes sur le marché du travail. Pour l'année 2023, le rapport couvre également les impôts sur le revenu et les cotisations de sécurité sociale payés par les salariés, les cotisations de sécurité sociale et taxes sur les salaires versés par leurs employeurs, et les transferts en espèces perçus par les travailleurs. L’objectif est de montrer comment ces taxes et prestations sont calculées dans chaque pays membre et d’examiner leurs impacts sur le revenu des ménages. Les résultats permettent aussi de faire des comparaisons internationales quantitatives des coûts de main-d’œuvre et de la situation globale vis-à-vis de l’impôt et des prestations des célibataires et des familles à différents niveaux de revenus. Cette publication présente des taux effectifs moyens et marginaux d’imposition sur les coûts de main-d’œuvre pour huit types de ménages représentatifs dont le niveau du salaire et la composition diffèrent (célibataires, parents isolés, couples avec un ou deux salaires et avec ou sans enfant). Les taux moyens d’imposition mettent en évidence le pourcentage de la rémunération brute ou des coûts de main-d’œuvre représenté par les impôts et les prélèvements sociaux, avant et après transferts en espèces, et les taux marginaux d’imposition correspondent à la partie d’une augmentation minime de la rémunération brute ou des coûts de main-d’œuvre reversée sous la forme d’impôts. Les informations détaillées par pays sont disponibles en anglais seulement.
  • 25-April-2024

    English

    Concentration of DeFi’s liquidity - Evidence from Decentralised Exchanges (DEXs) and Automated Market Makers (AMMs)

    Decentralised exchanges (DEXs) are on-chain platforms where traders can exchange one crypto-asset for another. DEXs play an increasingly important role in the decentralised finance (DeFi) market, particularly in the aftermath of the recent downturn in the crypto-asset market. This working paper explores the characteristics of DEXs and identifies areas of possible concentration in decentralised exchanges activity and potential associated risks. To substantiate the analysis, it uses an original on-chain dataset covering the largest DEXs. The paper reveals an increased concentration within DeFi trading in the sample observed, which could exacerbate vulnerabilities already present in DeFi markets.
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