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Publications


  • 16-June-2021

    English

    Political efficacy and participation - An empirical analysis in European countries

    The active participation of citizens is the lifeblood of any functioning democracy. But what drives people’s willingness to participate in political life? A key driver is their self-perception of their ability to understand political processes and to influence change through their action. These attitudes also determine people’s level of trust in government, making it a cornerstone of research and work on trust. In a context of increasing concerns regarding democratic legitimacy and decreasing levels of political participation, this paper aims to analyse empirically to what extent people’s attitudes towards their ability to influence and engage in political life – or their 'political efficacy' - affect their political behaviour, including different forms of participation. A better understanding of political attitudes can help governments anticipate democratic deficits and develop strategies to improve political efficacy and promote participation.
  • 16-juin-2021

    Français

    Effets à long terme de la pandémie de COVID-19 et des mesures de relance sur les pressions environnementales - Etude quantitative

    La présente synthèse contient une analyse des effets à long terme de la pandémie de COVID 19 et des mesures publiques de relance économique adoptées pour y faire face sur l’environnement. À l’aide de modélisations à grande échelle, il étudie les impacts des chocs sectoriels et régionaux sur l’économie jusqu’en 2040. Elle fait le lien entre des chocs sectoriels et régionaux sur l’économie jusqu’en 2040 et une série de pressions sur l’environnement, dont les émissions de gaz à effet de serre ou de polluants atmosphériques, l’utilisation de matières premières et les changements d’affectation des terres.. La réduction à court terme des pressions environnementales est notable : en 2020, les émissions de gaz à effet de serre et de polluants atmosphériques liées à l’énergie ont baissé de 7 % environ. Les pressions en rapport avec l’agriculture ont enregistré un recul plus modeste cette même année. Le recul de l’utilisation de minerais non métalliques, dont les matériaux de construction, a atteint un pourcentage à deux chiffres. D’après les projections, les émissions remonteront à partir de 2021 et se rapprocheront progressivement des niveaux de référence antérieures au COVID, les taux de croissance rattrapant tout leur retard. Cependant, à long terme, un effet à la baisse - potentiellement permanent - sur le niveau des pressions environnementales est chiffré entre 1 et 3 %.
  • 15-juin-2021

    Français

    Renforcer l’autonomie et la confiance des jeunes au Maroc

    Au Maroc, les moins de 25 ans représentaient 43% de la population en 2019 et d’ici 2030, la part des 15-24 ans représentera l’un des principaux groupes d’âges dans le pays. La jeunesse a donc un rôle primordial à jouer dans le développement social, économique, culturel et politique du pays. Inclure les jeunes dans la vie publique apparaît d’autant plus essentiel alors que les études de l’OCDE montrent que les jeunes sont les plus affectés par les conséquences socio-économiques de la crise sanitaire du COVID-19, et continueront à l’être sur le long-terme. Cette publication dresse un état des lieux de la gouvernance des affaires de la jeunesse au Maroc en mettant l’accent sur les 5 axes suivants: 1) le cadre normatif de la jeunesse, 2) l’approche gouvernementale intégrée dans l’élaboration des politiques de jeunesse, 3) le cadre institutionnel et la coordination multisectorielle, 4) l’inclusion d’une « dimension » jeunesse dans la formulation des politiques publiques et 5) les défis et opportunités en matière de participation des jeunes.
  • 15-June-2021

    English

    SME and Entrepreneurship Policy in the Slovak Republic

    This report presents the findings and recommendations of the OECD review of SME and Entrepreneurship Policy in the Slovak Republic. It examines how to address the challenges of stimulating more productive entrepreneurship, supporting enterprise scale-up, stimulating SME exports and global value chain participation, increasing SME innovation and innovative entrepreneurship, and making entrepreneurship more inclusive across the population. The report examines SME and entrepreneurship performance and the business environment for SMEs and entrepreneurship in the Slovak Republic, giving benchmarks against other OECD countries. The report also takes a close look at arrangements to ensure policy leadership, co-ordination and consultation in this field. It examines the government support programmes across areas including SME and entrepreneurship financing, supporting innovation, building SME workforce skills and public procurement. It also examines the east-west divide in SME and entrepreneurship activity and their supporting conditions in the Slovak Republic and how to strengthen regional entrepreneurial ecosystems across the country. Further chapters focus on SME digitalisation and the promotion of self-employment and social entrepreneurship to strengthen the labour market attachment of the Slovak Republic's Roma community.
  • 14-juin-2021

    Français

    Les profils de coopération au développement

    Les Profils de coopération au développement de l’OCDE synthétisent les statistiques officielles de l’aide publique au développement (APD) et d’autres financements du développement par bailleur. Ils analysent les tendances par géographie et par secteur, les allocations aux organisations multilatérales et à la société civile, aux priorités transversales comme le genre, l’autonomisation des femmes, l’environnement et le climat, ainsi que la mobilisation des financements privés. Les Profils couvrent les flux émis par les principaux bailleurs internationaux publics et privés, dont les pays membres de l’OCDE et de son comité d’aide au développement (CAD), de nombreux pays non-membres et de fondations privées. Ils donnent également un aperçu des priorités stratégiques, des dispositifs institutionnels et des systèmes d’évaluation de chaque bailleur. Les Profils de coopération au développement sont publiés annuellement et représentent une composante essentielle du Rapport Coopération pour le Développement de l’OCDE. Depuis plus de 50 ans, ce Rapport nourrit le CAD et plus largement la communauté internationale en faits, analyses et idées, afin de promouvoir la réforme des politiques de coopération, l’innovation et les meilleures pratiques. Chaque édition annuelle éclaire un thème d’importance particulière pour le financement et les politiques de coopération au développement. Le rapport principal comprend des versions abrégées des profils de chaque bailleur et présente les grandes tendances à travers des infographies.
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  • 11-June-2021

    English

    The tortoise and the hare: The race between vaccine rollout and new COVID variants

    New variants of the virus are spreading which, together with seasonal effects, are estimated to be able to raise effective reproduction numbers by up to 90%. Meanwhile, many countries are rolling out vaccination programmes, but at varying speeds. Hence the race is on to beat the variants with the vaccines. Vaccination is very powerful at reducing virus transmission: fully vaccinating 20% of the population is estimated to have the same effect as closing down public transport and all-but-essential workplaces; fully vaccinating 50% of the population would have a larger effect than simultaneously applying all forms of containment policies in their most extreme form (closure of workplaces, public transport and schools, restrictions on travel and gatherings and stay-at-home requirements). For a typical OECD country, relaxing existing containment policies would be expected to raise GDP by about 4-5%. Quick vaccination would thus help limit the extent to which containment policies need to be escalated in future epidemic waves, providing huge welfare benefits both in terms of fewer infections and stronger economic activity.
  • 11-June-2021

    English

    Building the STRING megaregion as a green hub in the wake of COVID-19

    STRING is a political cross-border organisation spanning five cities (the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg, Copenhagen, Malmö, Gothenburg and Oslo) and eight regions (Schleswig-Holstein, Region of Southern Denmark, Region Zealand, Capital Region of Denmark, Region Skåne, Region Halland, Västra Götalandsregionen and Viken County) across Germany, Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Home to around 14 million inhabitants, STRING has good potential to become a leading European megaregion and an internationally acknowledged Green Hub if governments 'think big' and work together beyond their own boundaries. Building on its green expertise and high levels of innovation and quality of life, STRING could take advantage of current opportunities such as the construction of the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link to reap the benefits of agglomeration economies and establish itself as a sustainable megaregion. However, time is of the essence. Seizing the political momentum of the coming decade, including the momentum to support a green recovery from COVID-19, will be critical to advance STRING’s green vision and shape a future-proof economic model.
  • 11-June-2021

    English

    Laying the foundations for artificial intelligence in health

    Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to make health care more effective, efficient and equitable. AI applications are on the rise, from clinical decision-making and public health, to biomedical research and drug development, to health system administration and service redesign. The COVID-19 pandemic is serving as a catalyst, yet it is also a reality check, highlighting the limits of existing AI systems. Most AI in health is actually artificial narrow intelligence, designed to accomplish very specific tasks on previously curated data from single settings. In the real world, health data are not always available, standardised, or easily shared. Limited data hinders the ability of AI tools to generate accurate information for diverse populations with potentially very complex conditions. Having appropriate patient data is critical for AI tools because decisions based on models with skewed or incomplete data can put patients at risk. Policy makers should beware of the hype surrounding AI and identify and focus on real problems and opportunities that AI can help address. In setting the foundations for AI to help achieve health policy objectives, one key priority is to improve data quality, interoperability and access in a secure way through better data governance. More broadly, policy makers should work towards implementing and operationalising the OECD AI Principles, as well as investing in technology and human capital. Strong policy frameworks based on inclusive and extensive dialogue among all stakeholders are also key to ensure AI adds value to patients and to societies. AI that influences clinical and public health decisions should be introduced with care. Ultimately, high expectations must be managed, but real opportunities should be pursued.
  • 11-June-2021

    English

    OECD Skills Strategy Lithuania - Assessment and Recommendations

    Skills are the key to shaping a better future and central to the capacity of countries and people to thrive in an increasingly interconnected and rapidly changing world. Megatrends such as globalisation, technological advances, and demographic change are reshaping work and society, generating a growing demand for higher levels and new sets of skills. OECD Skills Strategy projects provide a strategic and comprehensive approach to assess countries’ skills challenges and opportunities and help them build more effective skills systems. The OECD works collaboratively with countries to develop policy responses that are tailored to each country’s specific skills needs. The foundation of this approach is the OECD Skills Strategy Framework, which allows for an exploration of what countries can do better to: 1) develop relevant skills over the life course; 2) use skills effectively in work and in society; and 3) strengthen the governance of the skills system. This report, OECD Skills Strategy Lithuania: Assessment and Recommendations, identifies opportunities and makes recommendations for Lithuania to better equip young people with skills for work and life, raise adults’ and enterprises’ participation in learning, use people’s skills more effectively in workplaces, and strengthen the governance of skills policies.
  • 11-June-2021

    English

    Mining Regions and Cities Case of Andalusia, Spain

    Andalusia is the largest mining producer in Spain, the second-largest copper producer in the EU and a leader in marble and gypsum production. The region benefits from two distinct mining subsectors, each with a rich network of suppliers that are relevant for local development: the metallic mining sector (e.g. copper and zinc), which accounts for most of the regional mining production, and the non-metallic sector (ornamental rocks, aggregates and industrial minerals), which is highly dispersed across the territory. The regional mining value chain has the potential to leverage the increasing global and EU demand for sustainable raw materials and thus become a frontrunner in leading technologies and circular processes for environmentally sustainable mining. This study identifies how Andalusia can build on its strengths and address current and future challenges to improve regional productivity and well-being while accelerating the transition to a low-carbon economy and assisting EU climate goals.
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