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Publications


  • 19-July-2021

    English

    Empowering the health workforce to make the most of the digital revolution

    Digital technologies offer unique opportunities to strengthen health systems. However, the digital infrastructure only provide the tools, which on their own cannot transform the health systems, but need to be put to productive use by health workers. This report discusses how to engage and empower the health workforce to make the most of the digital revolution. While many health workers already use some digital tools and perceive the benefits that they bring to them and to patients, many also question the value digital technologies produce in health care or complain about technology getting in the way of work. Moreover, health workers often report not having sufficient opportunities for the up-skilling required to fully use new technologies or that the legal, financial, and organisational aspects of work – designed in the pre-digital era – do not enable them to reap the full benefits of these new technologies. Health workers and patients also demand appropriate safeguards against possible lack of transparency or threats to data privacy.
  • 16-July-2021

    English

    Reforming the taxation of housing in Israel

    This paper examines the taxation of housing in Israel, and proposes a set of reforms to improve the efficiency and fairness of the current system. Israel’s housing tax system faces similar problems to those of many other OECD countries. In particular, a bias arises in favour of owner-occupied property relative to rented property due to the non-taxation of imputed rents and most capital gains. That said, unlike many OECD countries, Israel taxes some owner-occupied capital gains (above a generous threshold) and generally does not allow mortgage interest relief for owner-occupied properties, reducing the extent of the distortion more than in many countries. As with most OECD countries, Israel levies highly distortionary transaction taxes, although a zero-rate band significantly limits the number of owner-occupied house purchases subject to the tax. Additionally, Israel’s recurrent property tax (the Arnona) faces a number of design problems, while the tax rules for rental income are complex and subject to significant tax evasion. To address these concerns, a reform package is proposed that involves a gradual and broadly revenue-neutral shift away from transaction taxes towards recurrent taxation of residential property, via increases in both the recurrent property tax and rental income taxation. The redesign of the recurrent property tax from an area-based to a market value-based tax is also proposed, as are a number of more technical reforms.
  • 16-July-2021

    English

    Developing a Water Policy Outlook for Georgia, the Republic of Moldova and Ukraine

    The OECD has been working on water policy reform in the countries of Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia for over 20 years. Three of the countries within the region, Georgia, the Republic of Moldova and Ukraine have signed Association Agreements with the European Union. These agreements provide a framework for deeper political ties and stronger economic links with the EU and include commitments for approximation towards EU legislation including the Water Framework Directive. Georgia, the Republic of Moldova and Ukraine have ambitious long-term strategic plans for their water sectors, which include fulfilment of requirements under the Association Agreements and international commitments including the Sustainable Development Goals. The water policy outlooks baseline the country policy framework and current performance and then define the long-term vision and aspirations to 2030. The outlooks aim to demonstrate the likelihood of the current policy framework to achieve the long-term objectives and desired future state of the water sector, and include identification of opportunities for improving policy coherence and policies that have the opportunity to improve the likelihood of success.
  • 15-July-2021

    English

    National assessment reform: Core considerations for Brazil

    In light of recent education reforms, Brazil is currently considering a series of changes to the purpose and design of its Basic Education Assessment System (Sistema de Avaliação da Educação Básica, SAEB), which has been a critical source of information about student learning outcomes for the past 30 years. To inform these discussions, the OECD was invited to review a set of policy proposals for reforming the current SAEB so that it more closely aligns with Brazil’s new learning standards and provides data to support a range of education actors - from the classroom to the ministry – in their efforts to raise educational performance and reduce inequalities. The findings from this OECD Review are set out in the below policy perspective.
  • 15-juillet-2021

    Français

    Soutenir les élèves ayant des besoins spécifiques d'éducation - Une priorité stratégique pour l’enseignement primaire

    Les systèmes d’éducation du monde entier s’efforcent de rendre la salle de classe plus inclusive pour tous les enfants, quelles que soient leur origine et leurs capacités, afin que chacun d’entre eux ait les mêmes chances de bénéficier d’un apprentissage de qualité. Il est devenu essentiel d’intégrer les élèves ayant des besoins spécifiques dans l’enseignement formel classique, et ces derniers sont de plus en plus nombreux à fréquenter des établissements et des classes ordinaires dans l’enseignement primaire. Les classes inclusives posent toutefois des exigences plus nombreuses et spécifiques aux enseignants. Les données de TALIS 2018 nous alertent sur le besoin urgent de soutenir les enseignants en charge d’élèves ayant des besoins spécifiques dans les établissements primaires. Soutenir les élèves ayant des besoins spécifiques constitue une priorité stratégique pour les chefs d’établissement et les enseignants à ce niveau d’enseignement. Le fait que les enseignants doivent adapter leurs cours pour soutenir ces élèves représente pour eux une source de stress particulière, et les enseignants sont nombreux à demander une formation complémentaire pour les aider à enseigner aux enfants ayant des besoins spécifiques.
  • 15-July-2021

    English

    Does test-based school accountability have an impact on student achievement and equity in education? - A panel approach using PISA

    School accountability is one of the most controversial recent reforms taking place in education systems around the world, but evidence of whether and which accountability practices affect equity and performance in academic achievement has been difficult to isolate and establish. By using data available from several cycles of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA 2006-2015), this paper assesses the extent to which accountability practices affect equity and performance in academic achievement in high-income-and-low-and-middle-income-countries. We found no conclusive evidence of accountability practices affecting educational outcomes in high-income-countries. However, we found some evidence in low-and-middle-income-countries pointing towards increased performance and increased inequality under accountability regimes in these contexts, although only in mathematics and science, and for one of our preferred specifications. In low-and-middle-income-countries, we found that, under higher levels of accountability, higher school autonomy on curriculum management and assessment could render better academic results in reading, mathematics and science.
  • 15-juillet-2021

    Français

    Les régions dans la mondialisation - Une approche originale de l’internationalisation des régions et son application au cas français

    La crise du COVID 19 a confirmé que le rôle des autorités locales pour faire face aux différents effets de la mondialisation. En France, comme généralement dans les pays de l’OCDE, c’est à l’échelon régional qu’est allouée la responsabilité de produire et de mettre en oeuvre les stratégies de développement économique, innovation et internationalisation. Ce document de synthèse tire les principales leçons des travaux statistiques et des analyses des politiques publiques relatives à l’internationalisation des Régions française menés par l’OCDE. Il propose une méthodologie originale afin d’identifier le positionnement des régions dans la mondialisation, l’applique au cas des régions françaises et confronte ses observations statistiques aux stratégies d’internationalisation retenues par les Régions. Des dispositifs de gouvernance pluri-niveaux dans lesquels s’inscrivent les acteurs de l’internationalisation des territoires sont aussi présentés.
  • 15-July-2021

    English

    Transparency reporting on terrorist and violent extremist content online - An update on the global top 50 content sharing services

    This benchmarking report explores the degree to which the world’s top 50 online content-sharing services’ approaches to terrorist and violent extremist content (TVEC) online have evolved since a first report in 2020. This new edition finds there has been tangible progress: 11 services have issued TVEC-specific transparency reports over the past year (6 more than in 2020); and the 5 services that already issued such reports now provide additional information. However, transparency reports expressly addressing TVEC remain uncommon and services continue to use different metrics, definitions and reporting frequencies. It remains difficult to gain an industry-wide perspective on the efficacy of companies’ measures to combat TVEC online and how they may affect human rights. Meanwhile, there is a growing risk of regulatory fragmentation due to unco-ordinated transparency requirements across jurisdictions. There is an urgent need for increased, and more comparable, TVEC reporting.
  • 14-July-2021

    English

    Implementing Regulatory Impact Assessment at Peru’s National Superintendence of Sanitation Services

    Regulations play a fundamental role in achieving public policy objectives, including the protection of human health and the environment, the fight against monopolies, or the efficient provision of water and sanitation services. Regulatory impact assessment (RIA) is an important tool for ensuring that regulations are of good quality. This report provides guidance for implementing RIA at the National Superintendence of Sanitation Services in Peru (Sunass). After assessing the agency’s process for issuing rules, the report provides recommendations for designing legal reforms needed to establish RIA as a permanent practice as well as training for the staff who will develop the RIAs. The report includes technical guidelines on undertaking public consultation, identifying public policy problems, and performing cost-benefit analysis.
  • 13-July-2021

    English

    Gender Equality in Chile - Towards a Better Sharing of Paid and Unpaid Work

    The OECD review of Gender Equality in Chile: Towards a Better Sharing of Paid and Unpaid Work is the first of a series addressing Latin American and the Caribbean countries. It compares gender gaps in labour and educational outcomes in Chile with other countries. Particular attention is put on the uneven distribution of unpaid work, and the extra burden this places on women. It investigates how policies and programmes in Chile can make this distribution more equitable. The first part of the report reviews the evidence on gender gaps and on what causes these, including the role played by attitudes. The second part develops a comprehensive framework to address these challenges, presenting a broad range of options to reduce the unpaid work burden falling on women, and to increase women’s labour income. The final part discusses the impact of the COVID-19 crisis and considers how the policy priorities of the government will have to change to address these.
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