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Publications


  • 14-June-2024

    English

    Enhancing productivity and growth in an ageing society - Key mechanisms and policy options

    The increase in human longevity is a major achievement, which brings individual well-being and strong contributions to society, but population ageing also generates challenges. This paper documents demographic trends in OECD countries, highlighting that ageing today largely reflects past fertility, longevity, and migration developments. Policies have moderate or delayed impacts on population ageing, hence they should also focus on adapting to ongoing demographic trends. The paper quantifies ageing’s potential impacts on labour supply and GDP per capita, showing that the extension of working lives as longevity rises could mitigate, but not completely offset, the negative effects of ageing on employment. It also examines how ageing may affect productivity through various micro and macroeconomic mechanisms. Finally, it provides policy directions for addressing the ageing challenge, through supporting healthy ageing, boosting employment, job quality and labour mobility in all age groups, and promoting older workers’ productivity by further developing lifelong learning and fostering an age-friendly management culture.
  • 14-June-2024

    English

    Enhancing the efficiency, inclusiveness, and environmental sustainability of housing in the Slovak Republic

    Housing affordability has deteriorated in the past decade. There is scope for eliminating barriers to expand housing supply by reforming land use policy and streamlining the administration of building permits. Measures can be taken to promote the expansion of the rental market and reform housing taxation to reduce the bias in favour of owner-occupied housing. Ensuring adequate supply and funding for construction and operation of social housing is crucial to improve living conditions for the most vulnerable. Accelerating the formalisation of property rights in Roma settlements would help to provide basic infrastructures for adequate access to water and sanitation. Implementing stricter regulation and targeted financial assistance to households most in need would help incentivise housing renovations, reduce energy poverty and advance environmental objectives.
  • 14-June-2024

    English

    Insights from social and solidarity economy data - An international perspective

    The social and solidarity economy (SSE) is gaining traction in public policy at subnational, national and international level. However, despite increasing interest, available data on the SSE remain limited. Collecting data on the SSE helps better understand its reach and contribution to the total economy, while also helping policy makers to design effective policies for its promotion and SSE actors to access new audiences, markets and finance. The OECD produced country fact sheets for 34 countries to provide a snapshot of their social and solidarity economy at the national level, collating information on official definitions, number and size of entities, employment patterns, sectors of activity and economic contribution as well as surrounding legal frameworks and social impact initiatives. This paper looks at commonalities across these countries in their SSE ecosystems to present overall insights and trends.
  • 14-June-2024

    English

    Taming wildfires in the context of climate change: The case of Greece

    The frequency and severity of extreme wildfires are on the rise in Greece, causing unprecedented disruption and increasingly challenging the country’s capacity to contain losses and damages. These challenges are set to keep growing in the context of climate change, highlighting the need to scale up wildfire prevention and climate change adaptation. This paper provides an overview of Greece's wildfire policies and practices and assesses the extent to which wildfire management in the country is evolving to adapt to growing wildfire risk under climate change.
  • 13-June-2024

    English

    Good Practices for Procuring Computers and Laptops in Latin America - Fostering Neutrality and Market Engagement

    This report takes stock of current ICT procurement practices in Chile, Colombia, and Mexico, focusing on vendor neutrality and market engagement in the purchase of personal computers and laptops. It also provides recommendations for improving access, competition, and market knowledge for procurement agencies in Latin America, based on OECD good practices and relevant principles, such as the 2015 OECD Recommendation on Public Procurement.
  • 13-June-2024

    English

    The impacts of long COVID across OECD countries

    Even as countries have long emerged from the dramatic restrictions imposed on populations during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic, an important subset of people infected with COVID-19 continue to struggle with symptoms, in some cases debilitating, that persist for weeks or even months after their initial infection. The analysis in this paper looks at the burden of long COVID across OECD countries. It examines its implications for the health of individuals and how long COVID may impact productivity and the labour force, as well as what countries are doing to address the condition. It further identifies priorities for improving care for people living with long COVID.
  • 13-June-2024

    English

    A new dawn for public employment services - Service delivery in the age of artificial intelligence

    As part of broader digitalisation efforts, half of public employment services (PES) in OECD countries are employing Artificial Intelligence (AI) to enhance their services. AI is being adopted across all key tasks of PES, including most commonly to match jobseekers with vacancies. While several PES have been using such tools for a decade, adoption of AI has been increasing in recent years as these become more accessible. New AI use cases have emerged to assist employers in designing vacancy postings and jobseekers in their career management and job-search strategies. AI initiatives have significant impact on PES clients, changing how they interact with the PES and receive support, and PES staff, altering their day-to-day work. As PES seek to maximise the opportunities brought by AI, proactive steps should be taken to mitigate associated risks. Key considerations for PES include prioritising transparency of AI algorithms and explainability of results, establishing governance frameworks, ensuring end-users (staff and clients) are included and supported in the development and adoption process, and committing to rigorous monitoring and evaluation to increase the positive and manage any negative impact of AI solutions.
  • 13-June-2024

    English

    Managing rising subnational fiscal risks

    Subnational governments face a range of fiscal risks, defined as events whose realisation leads to significant deviations of revenue and/or expenditure from budgeted amounts. Fiscal risks reflect unforeseen macroeconomic developments, as well as structural shifts in the economy, including digitalisation and climate change. Sound management of these risks requires a comprehensive framework involving their identification, analysis, mitigation, sharing or transfer, and prudent accommodation. Within this framework, subnational governments need to strengthen their capacity to manage their own risks, but national governments also have a role to play. This includes mitigating risks created by national policies, minimising moral hazard in supporting subnational governments affected by exogenous shocks, and using their legislative powers to avert excessive subnational risk-taking. Effective intergovernmental cooperation is key to the sound management of subnational fiscal risks. The paper discusses how different levels of government can work together in applying this framework to the main types of risks. It also provides some examples of good international practices in the management of risks.
  • 13-June-2024

    English

    Riding the rollercoaster - Subnational debt in turbulent times

    With interest rates at their highest levels in two decades, subnational governments (SNGs) are grappling with growing debt sustainability concerns. This paper investigates SNGs’ financing vulnerabilities by examining their debt levels and sensitivity to interest rate fluctuations. It provides an in-depth analysis of SNG debt portfolios, with a particular focus on marketable debt or bonds. While most SNG bonds have fixed rates and long maturities, some jurisdictions are significantly exposed to interest rate and foreign currency risks. Simulations reveal that interest expenses could rise substantially for some SNGs. Yet, worryingly, the variation in borrowing costs among SNGs within countries is often limited, suggesting potential weaknesses in market discipline. To navigate these challenges, the paper briefly explores how well-crafted fiscal rules, tax autonomy, and insolvency frameworks can help mitigate risks. It also highlights the need for further assessment of bank loans, as systematic information remains scarce. The paper provides insights for policymakers seeking to address risks and inform future reforms of SNG bond markets, reinforcing market discipline and bolstering fiscal resilience.
  • 13-June-2024

    English

    Guidance for a Monitoring and Evaluation System for Italy’s Universal Civil Service

    EU Funded Note Italy’s Universal Civil Service (UCS) engages young people in volunteering activities that enhance practical skill development for employability, active citizenship, and personal growth. Through a joint project between the OECD, the European Commission, and the Department for Youth Policies, Italy aims to improve the design and implementation of the UCS. As part of the project, this report analyses the current monitoring and evaluation framework of the UCS and provides guidance for the development of a robust results-based Monitoring and Evaluation system to improve the system’s ability to track progress and demonstrate impact.
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