Partager

Publications


  • 27-May-2024

    English

    Insights for designing mitigation elements in the next round of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)

    The Paris Agreement is underpinned by Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) in which Parties set out how they plan to support the Agreement’s long-term temperature goal. Parties are to submit their next NDCs by early 2025, informed by the first global stocktake (GST1). The GST1 sets out key signals and a series of mitigation focused calls in line with 1.5°C pathways that can guide the next generation of NDCs. This paper explores how Parties can prepare enhanced NDCs that take forward GST1 outcomes on mitigation and relevant provisions on NDCs, building on lessons learned from successive NDCs and available follow-up opportunities to support this process. Insights from experiences highlight the interlinkages between enhancing NDC ambition and implementation. Ambitious NDCs underpinned by robust implementation plans and accompanying investment plans can ensure NDCs are action oriented, implementation ready and investable. At the same time, adopting whole-of-government, whole-of-society approaches to NDCs can foster a sense of national ownership and increase social acceptance, leading to more ambitious NDCs and support subsequent implementation. The paper also explores potential guidance that could be relevant for negotiations on NDC features in 2024. While recognising the nationally determined character of NDCs, Parties could use these negotiations to provide clarity on new issues that have emerged since the Paris Agreement was adopted and on existing elements that could benefit from clarification. When addressing negotiations on NDC features, Parties may also want to consider a longer-term perspective beyond the next NDCs and links with other relevant negotiation processes on reporting and transparency.
  • 24-May-2024

    English

    The economic cost of childhood socio-economic disadvantage in Canada

    While child poverty has decreased significantly in recent years due to increased support for families with children, measures to assist socio-economically disadvantaged children only partially address their challenges. To enhance equality of opportunity and social mobility in Canada, it is crucial to strengthen efforts addressing the root causes of socio-economic disadvantages and bridge gaps in policies aimed at reducing child poverty. This paper presents an overview of child poverty trends in Canada and discusses the challenges associated with the Poverty Reduction Strategy aimed at enhancing equality of opportunity and social mobility.
  • 24-May-2024

    English

    Artificial intelligence, data and competition

    This paper discusses recent developments in Artificial Intelligence (AI), particularly generative AI, which could positively impact many markets. While it is important that markets remain competitive to ensure their benefits are widely felt, the lifecycle for generative AI is still developing. This paper focuses on three stages: training foundation models, fine-tuning and deployment. It is too early to say how competition will develop in generative AI, but there appear to be some risks to competition that warrant attention, such as linkages across the generative AI value chain, including from existing markets, and potential barriers to accessing key inputs such as quality data and computing power. Several competition authorities and policy makers are taking actions to monitor market developments and may need to use the various advocacy and enforcement tools at their disposal. Furthermore, co-operation could play an important role in allowing authorities to efficiently maintain their knowledge and expertise.
  • 24-May-2024

    English

    The economics of water scarcity

    This paper examines the current status of water availability, water demand, and influences from climate change in the European Union. It provides an overview of economic policy instruments to address water scarcity and manage water demand. Additionally, the paper explores policy options and considerations for addressing water scarcity and meeting Water Framework Directive (WFD) objectives. These considerations include balancing demand management and supply augmentation, managing water scarcity through robust allocation regimes, and increasing the use of agro-environmental measures and practices. The paper also discusses the principles and features of effective allocation regimes, drivers and incentives for allocation reforms, the hierarchy and sequencing of water use, abstraction charges, ensuring return flows and ecological flows, and improving the coherence of WFD measures and climate change policies. This is the third in a sub-set of four working papers within the Environment Working Paper series destined to support the further implementation of the economic pillar of the Water Framework Directive. The four papers are best read in combination and provide lessons which are relevant beyond the European Union.
  • 24-May-2024

    English

    The implementation of the Polluter Pays principle in the context of the Water Framework Directive

    This paper examines the challenges and policy imperatives involved in implementing the Polluter Pays principle (PPP) in the context of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). It presents the state of play of the Polluter Pays principle in EU Member States. It also analyses the coherence with other policies in EU Member States, such as agriculture, land planning and industry. Furthermore, it examines the practical limitations of the Polluter Pays principle in relation to diffuse and legacy pollution. Finally, it questions how the principle fits into the Green Deal and future water-related challenges in the EU. This is the second in a sub-set of four working papers within the Environment Working Paper series destined to support the further implementation of the economic pillar of the Water Framework Directive. The four papers are best read in combination and provide lessons which are relevant beyond the European Union.
  • 24-May-2024

    English

    Water investment planning and financing

    This paper examines three sets of issues related to strategic investment planning and financing for water: i) Investment planning in an uncertain context; ii) The benefits of supplementing project level planning with a consideration for pathways of investments; iii) Facilitating access to a wider range of financing sources, most importantly commercial finance. Together these issues can enhance the performance of water-related finance, making the best use of available finance and assets, in a context marked by high-level of (public and private) debt and rising cost of finance. This is the first in a sub-set of four working papers within the Environment Working Paper series destined to support the further implementation of the economic pillar of the Water Framework Directive. The four papers are best read in combination and provide lessons which are relevant beyond the European Union.
  • 24-May-2024

    English

    Cost recovery for water services under the Water Framework Directive

    This paper examines the concept of cost recovery of water services under the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), including the different types of costs and cost-recovery mechanisms. It presents the state of play in the implementation of cost recovery in EU Member States, for financial, environmental and resource costs. It also analyses the political, societal and technical issues affecting cost recovery in EU Member States. Furthermore, it examines emerging options to recover rising costs, including ways to minimise costs and innovative arrangements to supplement existing funding streams. Finally, it questions how fit cost recovery is as a concept for emerging and future water-related challenges in the EU. This is the fourth in a sub-set of four working papers within the Environment Working Paper series destined to support the further implementation of the economic pillar of the Water Framework Directive. The four papers are best read in combination and provide lessons which are relevant beyond the European Union.
  • 24-May-2024

    English

    Plastics recycled content requirements

    Companies are announcing pledges to increase their use of recycled content in their plastics products or packaging. But companies have historically failed to meet the goals that they have announced. OECD governments are adopting policies that will require the use of recycled content. There is some initial evidence that these policies strengthen recycling markets. Businesses have experienced some challenges in their initial efforts to comply due to a disharmonious range of definitions and targets. Additionally, there is an insufficient volume of useable recycled material in the market. This is especially an issue for food-contact packaging. Governments are facing limitations in what is feasible for monitoring and verifying compliance. This paper reviews current policies and methods for checking compliance. This review informs description of considerations for the design of recycled content policies and insights about their use.
  • 24-May-2024

    English

    Modernising Latvia’s Public Employment Service through Digitalisation

    EU Funded Note Latvia’s public employment service, the State Employment Agency (SEA), is undertaking a modernisation of its service delivery. This review discusses the SEA’s digitalisation needs and strategy to guide its modernisation efforts. It provides a detailed assessment of the SEA’s digital infrastructure and key recommendations concerning its IT system, analytical capacity and digital tools for jobseekers and employers. This report on Latvia is the fourteenth country study published in this series.
  • 24-mai-2024

    Français

    Élèves et écrans - Performance académique et bien-être

    Dans le monde d'aujourd'hui, le paysage numérique joue un rôle crucial dans la vie des enfants, en leur offrant des possibilités d'éducation, de socialisation et de divertissement. Cependant, il présente également des risques tels que la cyberintimidation, l'exposition à des contenus inappropriés et la violation de la vie privée. On craint également qu'un temps d'écran excessif ait un impact sur le développement social et émotionnel des enfants, ce qui donne lieu à des débats sur la qualité de leurs interactions. Les résultats récents de l'enquête PISA mettent également en évidence une corrélation négative entre l'utilisation d'appareils numériques à l'école et les résultats scolaires. Cette brochure de l'OCDE intitulée « Élèves et écrans : performance académique et bien-être » rassemble les dernières recherches sur les appareils numériques et l'éducation menées par la Direction de l'éducation et des compétences de l'OCDE afin d'aider les pays à définir des politiques dans ce domaine.
    Also AvailableEgalement disponible(s)
  • << < 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 > >>