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Publications


  • 24-April-2024

    English

    Fully realising the economic potential of women in Australia

    Gender inequalities in Australia have steadily declined, but remain particularly visible in the labour market. Women in Australia have lower employment rates, hourly wages and hours worked than their male counterparts. Childbirth is particularly disruptive for their labour market experience. Reforms to the tax and benefits system, childcare and parental leave arrangements are all needed to reduce the barriers to female labour participation of mothers. At the same time, ensuring the adequacy of unemployment benefits will support the living standards of many low-income women given that they have become an increasing share of recipients. Single mothers face particularly high poverty risk and would also benefit from more robust arrangements around child support payments from non-custodial parents.
  • 24-April-2024

    English

    Achieving the transition to net zero in Australia

    Australia has committed to achieving net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 and more recently outlined a more ambitious intermediate target for emission reductions by 2030. However, achieving these targets will be challenging given a historical reliance on coal generation and the presence of significant mining and agriculture sectors. It will require a rapid transformation of the electricity grid, significant emissions reductions in highly-polluting sectors such as industry and agriculture, and sufficient offsets generated by 'negative emissions' technologies and practices to counterbalance any emissions that cannot be fully eliminated. At the same time, Australia is particularly vulnerable to the physical impacts of climate change, as the driest inhabited continent on the planet with the majority of the population living on the coasts. Further significant reforms are required to meet the emission reduction goals, support the reallocation of workers and adapt to climate change.
  • 24-April-2024

    English

    Addressing demographic headwinds in Japan: A long-term perspective

    Japan faces serious demographic headwinds. Under current fertility, employment and immigration rates, the population would fall by 45% by 2100 and employment by 52%. Given the challenges of a shrinking and ageing population, the government has pledged to 'create a children-first economic society and reverse the birth rate decline'. One priority is to strengthen the weak financial position of youth, which leads many to delay or forgo marriage and children. Making it easier to combine paid work and family is also critical so that women are not forced to choose between a career and children. Policies should also cut the cost of raising children, the key obstacle to couples achieving their desired number of children. Given the challenge of reversing fertility trends, Japan needs to prepare for a low-fertility future by raising productivity and employment, particularly among women and older people. Breaking down labour market dualism, which disproportionately affects youth, women and older people, is a priority. Abolishing the right of firms to set a mandatory retirement age (usually at 60) and raising the pension eligibility age would also promote employment. Foreign workers are helping ease labour shortages, but more needs to be done to attract foreign talent. A comprehensive approach is needed to raise fertility, the employment rates of women and older persons and inflows of foreign workers.
  • 24-April-2024

    English

    Curriculum Frameworks and Visualisations Beyond National Frameworks - Alignment with the OECD Learning Compass 2030

    This evolving paper follows a first paper released in 2021 on 'National or regional curriculum frameworks and visualisations'. It presented a compilation of visualisations of curriculum frameworks, main competences and strategic schemes provided by countries and jurisdictions as part of the OECD Education 2030 curriculum analysis work. This paper presents a compilation of visualisations from conceptual frameworks that align with the OECD Learning Framework – OECD Learning Compass 2030, developed by inter-governmental, international organisations, non-governmental associations, or at the school or local level. The OECD Learning Compass 2030 positions itself as an overarching framework, with a taxonomy that serves as a common language for a multitude of audiences and contexts. The paper is an evolving document: new frameworks will be added and updated on a regular basis, in particular with frameworks of those schools, NPOs and other social partners who become part of the OECD Education 2030 multi-stakeholders’ group.
  • 24-April-2024

    English

    Framework for Anticipatory Governance of Emerging Technologies

    Emerging technologies can contribute to unprecedented gains in health, energy, climate, food systems, and biodiversity. However, these technologies and their convergence sometimes carry risks to privacy, security, equity and human rights. This dual-edged nature of emerging technology requires policies that better anticipate disruptions and enable technology development for economic prosperity, resilience, security and sustainable development. Drawing on prior OECD work and legal instruments, this framework equips governments, other innovation actors and societies to anticipate and get ahead of governance challenges, and build longer-term capacities to shape innovation more effectively. Its 'anticipatory technology governance' approach consists of five interdependent elements and associated governance tools: (1) embeding values throughout the innovation process; (2) enhancing foresight and technology assessment; (3) engaging stakeholders and society; (4) building regulation that is agile and adaptive; and (5) reinforcing international cooperation in science and norm-making. The emerging technology context determines how each of these elements is applied.
  • 24-April-2024

    English

    Fertile Futures - Scenario Analysis on the Interconnected Dynamics of Fertiliser and Agricultural Markets

    Fertilisers are crucial components of food systems, with impacts beyond agricultural markets. This study utilises the OECD-FAO Aglink-Cosimo model to examine the intricate interplay between fertiliser markets, policies, and their repercussions on agricultural markets, food security, and environmental sustainability over the medium term. Two distinct scenario analyses reveal significant insights. The first scenario shows that while short-term disruptions in fertiliser supply can be mitigated by existing stocks, prolonged deficits will increase global food prices by up to 6%, posing long-term threats to agriculture. In the second scenario, the removal of fertiliser subsidies in India leads to reduced domestic use, resulting in decreased agricultural production and exports coupled with increased imports. Although this will cause a modest 0.8% increase in global food prices, it will substantially cut agricultural greenhouse gas emissions by 7 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent, highlighting the pivotal role of domestic policies in attaining global environmental sustainability goals.
  • 24-April-2024

    English

    Supporting Indigenous Learners in Upper Secondary Education - Background and reflections from peer learning discussion

    The choice and diversity of upper secondary education create great potential to respond to the needs of Indigenous learners, and high stakes at this level make it critical to promote learners' success. Having historically been marginalized in educational settings around the world, it is essential that Indigenous students receive a supportive environment and the resources to succeed at this level. This policy brief provides reflections on the topic of supporting Indigenous learners in upper secondary education from a Peer Learning Discussion hosted by the OECD’s Above and Beyond: Transitions in Upper Secondary Education project. In December 2021, the project organised an informal discussion with participants from New Zealand and two provinces in Canada (Alberta and Manitoba), focusing on the systems’ experiences of supporting Indigenous learners at this level. This policy brief presents a summary of insights shared during this informal discussion, as well as background on the issues participants raised.
  • 24-April-2024

    English

    Building Competencies for Digital and Green Innovation in Higher Education

    This Education Spotlight, the second in a series of three, presents key lessons and inspiring examples of policy and practice to inform how traditional higher education programmes, like bachelor’s degrees, can effectively cultivate competencies crucial for green and digital innovation. The Spotlight was prepared by the OECD Higher Education Policy Team as part of the Education and Innovation Practice Community (EIPC), an action of the European Union’s New European Innovation Agenda, flagship 4 on 'Fostering, attracting and retaining deep tech talent'. EIPC seeks to bring together peers from policy and practice to advance understanding of the competencies that can trigger and shape innovation for the digital and green transitions, and the mechanisms through which higher education can contribute to their development in secondary education, higher education, and adult upskilling and reskilling.
  • 24-April-2024

    English

    OECD Agenda for Transformative Science, Technology and Innovation Policies

    Multiple crises are triggering turbulence, instability and insecurity in contemporary societies, with impacts on economies, the environment, politics, and global affairs. An effective response will require governments to be more ambitious and act with greater urgency in their science, technology and innovation (STI) policies to meet global challenges. Sustained investments and greater directionality in research and innovation activities are needed, and these should coincide with a reappraisal of STI systems and STI policies to ensure they are 'fit-for-purpose' to contribute to transformative change agendas. This policy paper provides a framework to support governments in making these assessments. It identifies six STI policy orientations for transformative change that should guide these assessments. It applies these orientations across multiple areas of STI policy, including R&D funding, the research and innovation workforce, and international R&D co-operation, and outlines a series of concrete policy actions STI policymakers can take to accelerate transformative change.
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