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  • 30-August-2022

    English

    Does Higher Education Teach Students to Think Critically?

    There is a discernible and growing gap between the qualifications that a university degree certifies and the actual generic, 21st-century skills with which students graduate from higher education. By generic skills, it is meant literacy and critical thinking skills encompassing problem solving, analytic reasoning and communications competency. As automation takes over non- and lower-cognitive tasks in today’s workplace, these generic skills are especially valued but a tertiary degree is a poor indicator of skills level. In the United States, the Council for Aid for Education developed an assessment of generic skills called the CLA+ and carried out testing in six countries between 2016 and 2021. This book provides the data and analysis of this 'CLA+ International Initiative'.
  • 4-August-2022

    English

    Procuring for broader outcomes - A case study of New Zealand: Measuring the impact of government procurement on productivity and well-being

    This case study is part of a series of case studies on the measurement of the impacts of centralised purchasing bodies on procurement efficiency and productivity. It looks at procurement practices and strategies, assesses their impacts on the effectiveness of the procurement system and their influence on the economy at large. It further establishes linkages between procurement strategies and national well-being indicators. The case study also looks at the enabling factors that are critical to achieve a comprehensive measurement of the multi-dimensional impacts of strategic public procurement.
  • 25-July-2022

    English

    Revenue Statistics in Asia and the Pacific 2022 - Strengthening Tax Revenues in Developing Asia

    This annual publication compiles comparable tax revenue statistics for Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, People’s Republic of China, Cook Islands, Fiji, Indonesia, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Nauru, New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Thailand, Tokelau, Vanuatu and Viet Nam. It also provides information on non-tax revenues for selected economies. Based on the OECD Global Revenue Statistics database, the publication applies the OECD methodology to Asian and Pacific economies to enable comparison of tax levels and tax structures on a consistent basis, both among the economies of the region and with other economies worldwide. This edition includes a special feature on strengthening tax revenues in developing Asia. The publication is jointly produced by the OECD’s Centre for Tax Policy and Administration and the OECD Development Centre, in co-operation with the Asian Development Bank, the Pacific Island Tax Administrators Association and the Pacific Community.
  • 1-June-2022

    English

    Trade and Gender Review of New Zealand

    This Trade and Gender Review of New Zealand draws on both quantitative and qualitative insights to provide a comprehensive analysis of the impact of trade, and trade policies, on New Zealand women as workers, consumers, and business owners and leaders. This Review sets out policy recommendations to help tackle the barriers that women face in engaging in trade and ensure that they share in the benefits from trade. Key recommendations include ensuring market access for goods and services that women produce and consume; incorporating gender provisions in trade agreements; trade facilitation reforms that particularly benefit women entrepreneurs; export promotion of women-led businesses; and ensuring diversity in trade policymaking.
  • 8-April-2022

    English

    Boosting productivity in New Zealand by unleashing digitalisation

    This paper overviews structural reforms that promote the diffusion of digital technologies and investment in intangible capital that maximises the potential of these technologies in New Zealand. Effective use of digital technologies enables New Zealand citizens to participate in society in a more inclusive way, firms to strengthen competitiveness and better integrate into the global economy, and the government to offer better services. New Zealand has room to boost its relatively low productivity level by removing the structural bottlenecks holding back the expansion of its digital sector and digital innovation. There are severe shortages of specialised ICT skills owing to COVID-19-related border restrictions and a weak domestic pipeline of these skills that partly results from school students’ poor mathematics achievement. Some regulations have not kept pace with technological change and risk constraining digital innovation while failing to prevent harmful activities. More intensive use of digital tools is also held back by the low availability of high-speed Internet connections in rural areas and a lack of financial support for small businesses. Weak coordination between export promotion and innovation support prevents young firms investing in digital innovation from reaping high returns through exporting. New Zealand should rigorously implement its new national digitalisation strategy so that government agencies and social partners can advance digital transformation.
  • 2-February-2022

    English

    Allocation of competences in policy sectors key to migrant integration - In a sample of ten OECD countries

    A first step to implement effective migrant integration policies is to know who does what in policy sectors key to integration. Responding to this need, this paper offers policy makers a tool to understand the organisation of public action in key sectors for integration - Employment, Education, Housing, and Health/Welfare – in a sample of 10 OECD countries: Austria, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, New Zealand, Spain, Sweden and the Netherlands. The complexity of the division of powers among levels of government calls for coordination mechanisms between actors, whatever the level of decentralisation. Besides, it throws lights on subnational governments’ role in integrating migrants and enabling them to participate to local development for the benefits of all. The geographic differences that exist in migrant presence and outcomes mean countries should build on local authorities' knowledge of local realities, aptitudes to coordinate different policy fields at the relevant scale and cooperate with non-governmental organisations.
  • 18-January-2022

    English

    Paying for results - Contracting out employment services through outcome-based payment schemes in OECD countries

    OECD countries deliver publicly-funded employment services through different institutional arrangements. While in most OECD countries the majority of such services are delivered by public employment services, in two in five OECD and EU countries (or regions) they are partly or fully contracted out to external providers, including for-profit and not-for-profit entities. Contracting out employment services to outside providers offers many potential benefits: an increased flexibility to scale capacity in line with changes in unemployment, the possibility of offering services more cost-effectively, the option to better tailor services through the use of specialised service providers and the possibility to offer jobseekers choice of providers. However, achieving these benefits will depend on the actual design and monitoring of the contracting arrangements that are put in place. Focusing on the job brokerage, counselling and case-management employment services typically provided by public agencies, this paper reviews the experiences of OECD countries that have contracted out employment services through outcome-based payment schemes. It highlights the need to carefully consider questions related to the design and implementation of this form of contracting: fostering competition amongst potential providers, setting appropriate minimum service requirements and prices for different client groups, and ensuring the accountability of providers through monitoring and evaluations. These issues are discussed based on country examples, which are also detailed in factsheets contained in the online annex of the paper.
  • 15-September-2021

    English

    Industrial Policy for the Sustainable Development Goals - Increasing the Private Sector’s Contribution

    How can governments support the private sector’s contribution to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)? This book investigates the contribution of firms to the SDGs, particularly through their core business, taking into account inter-sectoral linkages and global value chains, using novel techniques and data sources. Despite the fact that the private sector has the potential to contribute to a wide range of SDGs, and that many firms find it economically viable to develop sustainable products and services, firms still face significant hurdles in their sustainability transition. Based on this new evidence, this book provides some recommendations on the design of industrial policies to enhance the contribution of businesses to the SDGs.
  • 22-July-2021

    English

    COVID-19, productivity and reallocation: Timely evidence from three OECD countries

    The longer run consequences of the pandemic will partly hinge on its impact on high productivity firms, and the ongoing process of labour reallocation from low to high productivity firms. While Schumpeter (1939) proposed that recessions can accelerate this process, the nature of the COVID-19 shock coupled with a policy response that prioritised preservation (over reallocation) raises questions about whether job reallocation remained productivity-enhancing. Using novel, near-real-time data for Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, this paper shows that while labour turnover fell in response to the pandemic, job reallocation remained connected to firm productivity – that is, high productivity firms were more likely to expand and low productivity firms were more likely to contract. The pandemic coincided with a temporary strengthening of the reallocation-productivity link in Australia – but a weakening in New Zealand – which appears related to the design of job retention schemes. Finally, firms that intensively used Apps to manage their business were more resilient, even after controlling for productivity. Thus, while policy partly suppressed creative destruction, the nature of the shock – i.e. one where being online and able to operate remotely were key – favoured high productivity and tech-savvy firms, resulting in a reallocation of labour to such firms. The use of timely, novel data to investigate the allocative effects of the pandemic marks a significant advance, given that the seminal paper on productivity-enhancing reallocation during the Great Recession arrived some six years after Lehman Brothers collapsed.
  • 15-June-2021

    English, PDF, 395kb

    OECD Skills Outlook 2021: How does New Zealand compare?

    The Skills Outlook Country Profile details key indicators to assess the extent to which New Zealand is able to provide strong foundations for lifelong learning; promote effective transitions into further education, training and the labour market and engage adults in learning. It also evaluates the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on adult learning and the labour market.

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