The US food and agriculture sector is innovative, competitive and export-oriented. Changes in national and global demand offer further opportunities for US agri-food products, although climate change and other resource constraints could create additional challenges, in particular in some regions. Maintaining high productivity growth, while improving the sustainable use of resources will require further innovation. In a policy environment generally favourable to investment and innovation, the strong US agricultural innovation system is expected to continue to create innovations that will be widely adopted, to the extent that these can be widely accepted.
Productivity growth in the Turkish agricultural sector is supported today by better technologies, crop varieties and animal breeds. Yet improvements have slowed since the late 2000s, and the productivity gap between agriculture and the rest of the economy remains large. To overcome these challenges, Turkey will need to reduce the substantial technological and human resource disparities between small-holder and commercial segments in agriculture, and ensure more equal regional development. Considerable structural adjustment is also required, both within agriculture and in the overall economy, supported by broad policy actions in the areas of labour, education, social security systems, and land reform. Important efforts have been made to boost national innovation systems, but there remains considerable catch up in terms of the quality and impact of R&D.
The OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy offer a comprehensive assessment of the innovation system of individual OECD countries and partner economies, focusing on the role of government and concrete recommendations to boost innovation performance and R&D policies.
While Malaysia successfully transformed its economy from agriculture and mining towards manufacturing and more recently services, it is currently facing an economic slowdown and new competition. Mobilising new sources of growth will allow Malaysia to respond to these challenges and re-energise its economy through innovation-driven productivity gains.
The OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy offer a comprehensive assessment of the innovation system of individual OECD countries and partner economies, focusing on the role of government. They provide concrete recommendations on how to improve policies that affect innovation performance, including R&D policies. Each review identifies good practices from which other countries can learn.
National intellectual property (IP) systems can play a pivotal role in fostering innovation and knowledge diffusion. This report analyses Kazakhstan’s IP system with regards to its support of the country’s innovation performance. In particular, it assesses the organisation and governance of Kazakhstan's IP system as well as the needs and challenges faced by different groups of actual and potential IP users – ranging from universities and public research institutions to state-owned enterprises and small businesses. The review provides a comprehensive set of statistics describing the use of IP in Kazakhstan in recent years, identifies the system’s strengths and weaknesses, and presents a range of specific policy recommendations to address existing challenges.
Ce rapport propose une nouvelle approche intégrée pour promouvoir la productivité et réduire les inégalités. Il présente les études empiriques les plus récentes sur les principaux facteurs qui expliquent le ralentissement des gains de productivité et la hausse ou la persistance des inégalités mais aussi discute des liens possibles entre ces deux tendances et de leurs éventuels fondements communs.
This joint initiative by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) and the OECD seeks to encourage the expansion of broadband networks and services in the region, supporting a coherent and cross-sectorial approach, to maximise their benefits for economic and social development. Drawing on a wealth of experience from LAC and OECD countries, the Toolkit outlines the main policy objectives in this area and provides guidance for their measurement, an overview of developments in the region, and a compilation of good practices in several areas related to broadband policy making.
This comprehensive volume encompasses a wealth of areas including digital strategies, regulatory frameworks, spectrum management, competition and infrastructure bottlenecks, broadband access, affordability, sector taxation, inclusion, convergence, regional integration, education, skills, business uptake, entrepreneurship, local content, e-health, digital government, consumer policy, and digital security and privacy.
Mexico has developed an ambitious national open data policy to create value from the use and re-use of government data by the public, private and social sectors. Open government data (OGD) has the potential to spur the digital economy, as well as contribute to more efficient public service delivery and greater public engagement. Mexico has demonstrated its commitment to OGD through its close involvement in international open data initiatives. However, it faces challenges in effectively implementing OGD domestically in a way that makes a greater impact on the economy and society. This would require, notably, institutionalizing open data, understanding the demand for government data, reaching out to potential users and working more closely with local governments. To fully realise the potential of open data, it is crucial that public bodies understand the benefits, are fully behind the project and actively participate in its implementation. This report provides an analysis of Mexico’s policies as well as recommendations for achieving its national objectives and making the most of OGD.
Public policy has an important role to play in promoting research and development (R&D) and the development, diffusion, and use of new knowledge and innovations. Fiscal incentives, including tax policies, should be directed at specific barriers, impediments or synergies to facilitate the desired level of investment in R&D and innovations.
After a period of relatively robust growth that has allowed tens of millions of poorer households to join the global middle class, growth in Latin America has slowed recently, partly as a result of external factors. To close the still large gaps in living standards in relation to advanced economies, the region needs to significantly raise productivity growth while making sure that everybody has the opportunity to benefit from it. This will require comprehensive structural reforms, supported by a pro-productivity policy framework that incorporates social inclusion considerations from the outset.