• 15-June-2022


    Production Transformation Policy Review of Shenzhen, China - A Journey of Continuous Learning

    Shenzhen is a stellar case of growth and economic transformation. Since its establishment as one of China’s first four Special Economic Zones in 1980, it has evolved at breakneck speed. Shenzhen transformed from a fishing village to a major world trade hub and is now home to global innovators in electronics. The Production Transformation Policy Review (PTPR) of Shenzhen, China reviews the city’s changing policy approaches, focusing on the shift from an assembly to a manufacturing centre and more recently to an innovation and start-up hub. Through a comprehensive assessment of Shenzhen’s experience, this review offers insights into the range of policies and strategies employed to stimulate industrial upgrading and learning in China. It provides lessons and actionable policy recommendations for the growth of cities and emerging economies in their catching-up journey. The PTPR of Shenzhen, China has been carried out in the framework of the OECD Initiative for Policy Dialogue on Global Value Chains, Production Transformation and Development and has benefitted from government-business dialogues and international peer learning (University of Seoul, Korea; University of Georgetown, USA and Digital India Foundation, India).
  • 27-May-2022


    Harnessing investment for sustainable development

    While foreign direct investment has the potential to advance sustainable development, private sector incentives and both home and host country policies require careful consideration. The OECD FDI Qualities Initiative advises governments and business on actions they can take to ensure that the sustainability benefits of investment are fully realised.

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  • 19-May-2022


    Promoting Start-Ups and Scale-Ups in Denmark’s Sector Strongholds and Emerging Industries

    Start-ups and scale-ups often make outsized contributions to innovation and job creation. However, while entrepreneurial ecosystems in countries and regions are increasingly studied, less is known about differences by sector. What role do start-ups and scale-ups play in the development of different future growth sectors? What problems and bottlenecks does government policy need to address? To what extent do the start-up and scale-up contributions and obstacles vary by sector, and what is in common across sectors? This report examines the entrepreneurial ecosystems of three of Denmark's sector strongholds, sectors where future growth is likely to be generated - advanced production, energy technology and food and bio resources. A focus on Denmark includes the scale and nature of start-ups and scale-ups in different sectors, the bottlenecks, the current policies and how they can be refined. In addition, nine international policy experiences are presented as inspiring practices for Denmark and other countries - covering Austria, Canada, Finland, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Recommendations are offered for Denmark across areas such as entrepreneurial finance, networks, public procurement, and cluster management organisations, covering both cross-sector and sector-specific recommendations.
  • 4-May-2022


    International investment implications of Russia’s war against Ukraine

    Russia’s war against Ukraine has triggered unprecedented policy responses around the globe. These policy measures, as well as decisions by multinational companies, raise manifold implications for international investment policy, and capital and investment flows. This report provides an overview of the implications, both immediate and longer-term, in what remains a quickly evolving environment.
  • 3-May-2022


    Are industrial policy instruments effective? - A review of the evidence in OECD countries

    While the case for industrial policy is gaining traction across OECD countries, little consensus exists on the effectiveness of such interventions. Building on a new analytical framework for industrial policy developed in a companion paper, this paper reviews the empirical literature on the effectiveness of industrial policy instruments, laying out the knowns and unknowns. Overall, it strongly supports the premise that well-designed economic incentives for firms and good framework conditions shaping the business environment are effective. At the same time, it emphasises the limited and inconclusive nature of the evidence regarding the increasingly frequent targeted and demand-side instruments. Finally, it underlines the complementarities between economic incentives and other interventions such as skill policies or framework conditions, notably competition and trade policies. Framework conditions are indeed key in enabling the most productive firms to grow and an important channel for structural change.
  • 3-May-2022


    An industrial policy framework for OECD countries - Old debates, new perspectives

    The debate on industrial policy has made a comeback in both academic and policy circles. Yet, no consensus exists on an industrial policy paradigm and the absence of a common reference framework unduly obfuscates the debate – even which interventions are to be considered 'industrial policy' is not clear-cut. Against this background, this paper proposes a coherent framework for analysing the formulation of industrial policy, relying on a purposefully broad definition of the latter. Leveraging the proposed framework and a companion paper which synthetises the available empirical evidence, this paper stresses the complementarities between policy instruments, thereby justifying the use of industrial strategies, acknowledges the role of targeted industrial strategies, which can direct technological change and growth, and of demand-side instruments, which can contribute to transformative industrial change, but calls for a stronger emphasis on evaluation and the regular re-assessment of targeted industrial strategies.
  • 29-March-2022


    Financing SMEs and Entrepreneurs 2022 - An OECD Scoreboard

    The COVID-19 crisis caused profound disruptions in the global economy, with SMEs and entrepreneurs, particularly hard hit. Swift measures implemented by governments and public financial institutions provided a crucial lifeline for liquidity-strapped SMEs. The 10th edition of Financing SMEs and Entrepreneurs 2022: An OECD Scoreboard sheds light on the impacts of the crisis on SME finance, tracking the latest developments in debt, equity, asset-based finance, and framework conditions, along with recent policy developments for 48 countries around the world. It shows that lending continued to flow to SMEs during the pandemic, with unprecedented growth in outstanding SME loans. What is more, credit conditions relaxed significantly: interest rates registered record lows, interest rate spreads narrowed considerably, and collateral requirements declined in most Scoreboard countries. In contrast, alternative sources of finance such as leasing and factoring declined significantly, in part because of the large uptake of credit. Evidence on equity finance shows a resilient venture capital sector, with some fragility in early-stage finance. The thematic chapter of this report assesses the evolution of SME financing support during the crisis, from the rescue to recovery phases. It documents a fall in the level of SME-related support in national recovery packages compared to earlier rescue measures.
  • 15-March-2022


    Closing the Italian digital gap - The role of skills, intangibles and policies

    The study identifies the main factors that affect the diffusion of digital technologies and their returns among Italian firms, highlighting the crucial role of public policies. It uses a unique data infrastructure that integrates information on digital technology adoption, firm performance, and workers’ and managers’ skills. The analysis shows that the low digitalisation of Italian firms, especially of SMEs, can be traced back to the low levels of three factors: i) workers’ skills, ii) management capabilities, and iii) accumulation of intangible assets. These factors are also crucial to maximise the effectiveness of public policies supporting firm digitalisation, such as the deployment of broadband infrastructure and fiscal incentives to investments in digital technologies. Finally, the analysis shows that the COVID-19 crisis contributed to further widening the digital gap between Italian firms, favouring ex-ante more digitalised companies, suggesting that public policies play a crucial role for the post-COVID-19 recovery.
  • 10-mars-2022


    L’internationalisation et l’attractivité des régions françaises

    Les enjeux de la mondialisation et des mégatendances ainsi que l’impact de la crise COVID affectent les territoires de manière asymétrique. Les Régions, responsables du développement économique et de l’internationalisation et les services et opérateurs de l’État qui les appuient, doivent pouvoir disposer d’indicateurs pertinents pour identifier les priorités de leurs politiques d’attractivité et assurer leur suivi. Ces politiques concernent un ensemble varié d’acteurs à différents niveaux de gouvernement. L’amélioration continue de l’action publique est un processus nécessaire pour faire de l’attractivité internationale vis-à-vis des investisseurs, des talents et des visiteurs, un levier de développement régional équilibré, inclusif et durable. À la demande de la France et avec le soutien de la DG REFORM de la CE, l’OCDE a développé une approche innovante pour accompagner les Régions françaises, leurs partenaires nationaux et les différents acteurs dans cet exercice. Six outils, dix recommandations et un plan d’action pour leur mise en œuvre sont proposés. Ce travail initié avec la France est désormais étendu à de nombreuses régions dans différents pays membres et non membres de l’OCDE.
  • 7-mars-2022


    Science, technologie et innovation: Tableau de bord de l'OCDE

    La nouvelle plateforme STI.Scoreboard offre la possibilité d’extraire, visualiser, comparer et partager plus de 1000 indicateurs statistiques des systèmes de science, technologie et innovation pour les pays de l'OCDE ainsi que plusieurs autres économies.

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