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Publications & Documents


  • 13-May-2022

    English

    Events on Measuring Regulatory Performance

    Annual OECD expert conferences related to measuring regulatory performance, inter alia, best practices on measuring compliance costs, developing a measurement framework for regulatory performance, use of perception surveys, indicators of Regulatory Management Systems.

    Related Documents
  • 11-May-2022

    English

    OECD Sovereign Borrowing Outlook 2022

    This edition of the OECD Sovereign Borrowing Outlook reviews the impact of the COVID-19 crisis for sovereign borrowing needs, funding conditions and funding strategies as well as outstanding debt for 2020 and 2021, and provides projections for 2022 for the OECD area. It discusses public debt management efforts to support government Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) agendas through investor relations and ESG-labelled sovereign bonds, and identifies strategic challenges and key elements of good practices in light of country experiences. It also examines the recent developments and trends in debt issuance by governments of emerging market and developing economies, and presents various challenges, priorities and opportunities for sovereign debt management in these economies.
  • 6-May-2022

    English

    Promoting Integrity through the Reform of the Administrative Penalty System of Bulgaria - Building a Comprehensive and Coherent Legal Framework

    This report analyses Bulgaria's legal framework for administrative penalties. Administrative penalties are crucial for ensuring accountability in the public administration. The report assesses the subjective scope of their application, the typologies and levels of administrative penalties, and the proceedings for applying them. The report highlights relevant good practices from other EU Member States, and provides recommendations on how to address key challenges as well as legislative proposals for building a comprehensive legal framework.
  • 27-avril-2022

    Français

    Un chemin court et sinueux jusqu’à 2030 (version abrégée) - Mesurer la distance à parcourir pour atteindre les cibles des ODD

    Le Programme de développement durable à l’horizon 2030 se caractérise par un degré d’ambition sans précédent, mais il représente aussi un formidable défi pour les pays du fait de la complexité et de l’imbrication de ses 17 objectifs et 169 cibles. Afin d’aider les gouvernements nationaux à le mettre en œuvre, l’OCDE a mis au point une méthode unique permettant de comparer les progrès accomplis ainsi que les dynamiques sous-jacentes pour l’ensemble des objectifs et cibles du Programme de Développement Durable. Sur la base du Cadre mondial d’indicateurs relatifs aux Objectifs de Développement Durable et de données provenant des Nations Unies et de l’OCDE, le présent rapport propose un bilan détaillé des résultats obtenus par les pays membres de l’OCDE. Pour l’ensemble des cibles pour lesquelles des données existent, ce rapport évalue la distance que les pays de l’OCDE ont à parcourir afin d’atteindre les Objectifs de Développement Durable mais il va plus loin et approfondit l’analyse en mettant en évidence les tendances de fond ainsi que l’impact potentiel de la pandémie de COVID-19. En faisant le point sur les forces et les faiblesses des pays par rapport aux différents ODD, ce rapport vise à aider les pays Membres à avancer au mieux vers la réalisation de ces objectifs et à identifier leurs propres priorités d’action.
  • 26-April-2022

    English

    Africa’s Urbanisation Dynamics 2022 - The Economic Power of Africa’s Cities

    This report provides a new perspective on Africa’s urban economies that is unique in its breadth and level of detail. Based on data from more than 4 million individuals and firms in 2 600 cities across 34 countries, it presents compelling evidence that urbanisation contributes to better economic outcomes and higher living standards. It shows that across most socio-economic dimensions, cities significantly outperform the countries in which they are located. In Africa, urbanisation accounts for approximately 30% of the growth in per capita gross domestic product (GDP) over the past 20 years. Importantly, the gains from urbanisation on economic performance and quality of life extend beyond city boundaries, also benefiting rural areas. The report also shows that transnational clusters of cities are emerging along coasts as well as inland, offering new opportunities for economic development. Based on these findings, the report sets forth policy priorities at national and local levels that are essential to realise the potential of urbanisation. Among these, it argues that the role of cities should be fully anchored in national development planning. Moreover, local governments need greater fiscal and administrative capacity to become key actors in economic development.
  • 25-April-2022

    English

    Assessing Tax Compliance and Illicit Financial Flows in South Africa

    Illicit financial flows (IFFs) such as tax evasion are a major policy challenge for developing and emerging economies, in particular as the COVID-19 pandemic has drained domestic resources. This report presents results from a joint project between the OECD and the National Treasury of South Africa, which assesses tax compliance and IFFs in South Africa. The report provides an overview of macroeconomic, tax and fiscal developments in South Africa since the global financial crisis. It discusses the concepts of IFFs, how they relate to the South African context and provides an overview of South Africa’s participation in multilateral initiatives to combat tax evasion. It also provides a quantitative analysis of tax compliance and IFFs over time amid a variety of tax transparency initiatives implemented in South Africa. Finally, the report examines the effectiveness of tax transparency initiatives such as voluntary disclosure programmes, and looks into income and wealth characteristics of applicants to these programmes.
  • 22-April-2022

    English

    Delivering Quality Services to All in Alentejo - Preparing Regions for Demographic Change

    This publication is part of the OECD workstream on Preparing Regions for Demographic Change. It elaborates a case study for the Portuguese region of Alentejo and focuses on improving the delivery of educational services taking into account the multi-level governance context. The study highlights the need to better articulate and co-ordinate the delivery of educational services among levels of government to improve access and quality. It also sheds light on the decisive role that geography plays and the importance of adopting a spatial lens to mitigate the rising inequality present in Portugal in access to education services. Alentejo is a rural region that expects to lose 30% of its population between 2020 and 2080, hence it needs to put in place forward-looking and effective policy levers to delivery sustainable education services to citizens living in rural communities.
  • 21-avril-2022

    Français

    Examens de l'OCDE sur la coopération pour le développement : Portugal 2022

    Le Comité d’aide au développement (CAD) de l’OCDE procède à des examens par les pairs de ses membres une fois tous les cinq ou six ans. Ces examens visent à améliorer la qualité et l’efficacité de leur coopération pour le développement, en mettant en évidence les bonnes pratiques et en recommandant des améliorations. Le Portugal mobilise les compétences de l’ensemble de son administration et met fortement l’accent sur l’appropriation par les pays partenaires. Fort des relations bilatérales étroites qu’il a établies de longue date avec les pays partenaires, le Portugal concentre ses financements sur les pays où les besoins sont les plus grands. Par son action de plaidoyer efficace sur la scène internationale, le Portugal est un ardent défenseur de la coopération triangulaire et, en tant que président du Conseil de l’Union européenne, il a favorisé le consensus entre les membres de l’Union sur des questions comme le renforcement des initiatives Team Europe en faveur du développement humain. Cependant, le Portugal pourrait tirer davantage parti de la large participation des acteurs étatiques et non étatiques à ses activités de coopération pour le développement. Cet examen par les pairs formule un ensemble de recommandations destinées à améliorer la coordination entre les différentes composantes de l’administration, à rassembler les initiatives bilatérales, à accorder une plus grande attention aux réalisations et à prendre des mesures pour accroître l’aide publique au développement (APD).
  • 20-April-2022

    English

    Multi-dimensional Review of the Western Balkans - From Analysis to Action

    The Western Balkans region has come a long way over the last two decades in achieving economic and social progress. Its people are the region’s greatest asset. Yet faced with a lack of opportunities many, particularly the young, decide to emigrate. To make the most of its future the region must invest in its attractiveness as a place to live, work and invest in. This report comes as a follow-up to the earlier publication Multi-dimensional Review of the Western Balkans: Assessing Opportunities and Constraints. It builds on an extensive peer-learning process that brought together experts from across the region and beyond. The report provides suggestions and recommendations for three strategic priorities that can help create opportunities and boost the quality of life. First, better education and more competencies are the basis for raising productivity, creating jobs, encouraging civic participation and making the region an attractive destination. Second, social cohesion is the bedrock of resilient societies and requires stronger labour market policies and effective social protection that can cushion people’s hardship and provide them with new opportunities. Third, cleaner air and more sustainable energy are indispensable for boosting the region’s quality of life and economic opportunities.
  • 12-April-2022

    English

    Brain-computer interfaces and the governance system - Upstream approaches

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems are in a period of rapid development and offer significant potential for the promotion of health and well-being. At the same time, they raise a range of unique ethical, legal, and policy questions, and few BCI-specific rules exist in a fragmented regulatory landscape. This report aims to help develop a responsible and anticipatory governance approach to promote innovation while shaping the trajectory of technology through a set of mechanisms, including (i) soft law, (ii) standardisation and ethics-by-design approaches, (iii) corporate self-governance, and (iv) participatory experiments for upstream governance.
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