Regional development is rooted in place-based strategic planning and strengthened regional innovation systems. In Romania, the eight Regional Development Agencies (RDAs) are responsible for strategic planning for regional development and delivering innovation support services to regional and local actors. They also manage the public investment funds dedicated to these activities. These are challenging tasks. Many RDAs face difficulties in ensuring that regional and sub-regional development objectives and priorities align, expanding the definition of innovation, and activating their regional innovation ecosystem. Equally difficult is keeping stakeholders engaged and committed to the regional development and innovation agendas. This report synthesises the regional development and innovation challenges facing Romania’s RDAs and potential activities to overcome these in three areas – strategic planning and performance measurement, finance and implementation, and communication and stakeholder engagement. It also offers insights and recommendations for higher-levels bodies to further support RDAs through guidance, facilitating peer-exchange, and actively engaging the RDAs in regional development decision making.