By Date

  • 29-novembre-2021


    Politique de la réglementation : Perspectives de l’OCDE 2021

    La législation et la réglementation régissent la vie quotidienne des entreprises et des citoyens, et sont des outils essentiels de l’action publique. La pandémie de COVID-19 a mis en évidence le rôle crucial que joue la réglementation dans l’économie et la société, tout en révélant, dans l’activité normative conduite aux niveaux national et international, des lacunes qui ont coûté des vies et de l’argent. La publication Politique de la réglementation : Perspectives de l’OCDE 2021, troisième édition de cette série thématique, dresse une cartographie des efforts déployés par les pays pour améliorer la qualité de la réglementation conformément à la Recommandation de l’OCDE de 2012 concernant la politique et la gouvernance réglementaires, et diffuse des bonnes pratiques dans le domaine de la réglementation grâce auxquelles il peut s’avérer plus facile de combler ces lacunes. Elle apporte des éclairages sans équivalent sur les approches des pays en matière d’élaboration, d’application et de révision de la réglementation, et comporte des recommandations visant à optimiser le ciblage des efforts nationaux pour faire en sorte que la législation et la réglementation produisent les effets escomptés. Enfin, certaines approches souples et innovantes de l’activité normative, comme le « bac à sable » réglementaire, les éclairages comportementaux, et la réglementation fondée sur les résultats, axée sur les données ou fondée sur les risques, sont abordées dans cette édition.
  • 26-November-2021


    Public Integrity in Ecuador - Towards a National Integrity System

    Public integrity is necessary to respond to corruption, sustain trust in public institutions and manage crises such as COVID-19 effectively. This report analyses the institutional responsibilities on public integrity in Ecuador. It proposes concrete recommendations to address fragmentation and to build a public integrity system involving all relevant actors at national level. The report also reviews Ecuador’s strategic approach to public integrity and proposes a roadmap toward a long-term state policy in line with national and international development objectives. Finally, it examines how Ecuador could mainstream integrity within the public entities of the executive branch.
  • 22-November-2021


    Promoting Education Decision Makers' Use of Evidence in Flanders

    The introduction of standardised tests in Flemish schools aims to generate regular, reliable data for educators and policy makers. At an early stage of development, this report uses a research-based framework to engage stakeholders in thinking about the opportunities standardised tests could bring for their work. It builds on feedback from key stakeholders regarding their perceptions, hopes and concerns about the introduction of standardised tests. Feedback was gathered during a series of structured discussions and a stakeholder reflection seminar. The report identifies ways to strengthen the opportunity, capability and motivation of decision makers at all levels of the education system to use evidence effectively for their respective practice – including teaching and quality assurance. The report identifies lessons learnt to support the further development of standardised tests. The publication is part of OECD work on strategic education governance, which supports countries in identifying the best ways to achieve national objectives in a context of multi‑level governance structures and complex environments. The work identifies and promotes effective governance processes in the domains of accountability, capacity, knowledge governance, stakeholder involvement, strategic thinking and adopting a whole‑of‑system perspective. This publication will be of interest to policy makers, education leaders, the education research community and all those interested in education governance.
  • 22-November-2021


    Education Policy Outlook 2021 - Shaping Responsive and Resilient Education in a Changing World

    Education systems operate in a world that is constantly evolving towards new equilibria, yet short-term crises may disrupt, accelerate or divert longer-term evolutions. This Framework for Responsiveness and Resilience in Education Policy aims to support policy makers to balance the urgent challenge of building eco-systems that adapt in the face of disruption and change (resilience), and the important challenge of navigating the ongoing evolution from industrial to post-industrial societies and economies (responsiveness). Building on international evidence and analysis from over 40 education systems, this framework endeavours to establish tangible, transferable and actionable definitions of resilience. These definitions, which are the goals of the framework (Why?), are underpinned by policy components of responsiveness (What?), which define priority areas for education policy makers. Policy pointers for resilience (How?) then illustrate how policy makers can apply these components in ways that promote resilience at the learner, broader learning environment and system levels of the policy ecosystem. Finally, a transversal component looks into the people and the processes undertaken in order to reach a given purpose (Who?). The report has been prepared with evidence from the Education Policy Outlook series – the OECD’s analytical observatory of education policy.
  • 22-November-2021


    Evaluation Guidelines for Representative Deliberative Processes

    The OECD report Innovative Citizen Participation and New Democratic Institutions: Catching the Deliberative Wave (2020) demonstrated that public authorities from all levels of government increasingly turn to Citizens' Assemblies, Citizens’ Juries, and other representative deliberative processes to tackle complex policy problems. As the use of such processes increases, so does the need to determine and ultimately improve their quality. The purpose of this document is to help public authorities initiate and develop better representative deliberative processes by establishing a minimum standard for their evaluation. These guidelines provide policy makers and practitioners with an evaluation framework and methodology, as well as evaluation questionnaires.
  • 18-November-2021


    Women in infrastructure - Selected stocktaking of good practices for inclusion of women in infrastructure

    Infrastructure can have a major impact on women’s access to resources and agency over their well-being, and thus on women’s empowerment. Infrastructure itself is not gender-neutral: women and men have different needs and use infrastructure differently given their specific social roles, economic status or preferences. Poor infrastructure quality also poses differentiated threats to women’s safety and well-being. Moreover, infrastructure has traditionally been a heavily male-dominated sector, leaving women little or no voice in investment decisions that affect their economic opportunities, day-to-day lives and well-being. Increasing women’s participation in infrastructure policy and decision making is thus crucial. This report explores the challenges policy makers face when mainstreaming gender into infrastructure and proposes a framework for incorporating gender considerations at each stage of the public investment process. The report also provides guidance on how to involve more women in infrastructure leadership and decision making.
  • 17-November-2021


    Entrepreneurship in Regional Innovation Clusters - Case Study of Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai, Thailand

    This report evaluates how to strengthen Thailand's SME and entrepreneurship policies to promote innovative entrepreneurship and SME innovation at regional level. This is critical in supporting a shift towards a more innovation-driven and regionally-balanced economy in Thailand. The report illustrates the needs by taking a specific policy case, namely activating new and small firms in the development of an innovation cluster in the advanced agriculture and biotechnology and food for the future sectors in Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai regions in northern Thailand. The report examines policy options in four major areas affecting the cluster: strengthening the local entrepreneurship ecosystem for example in scale-up finance and entrepreneurial culture; upgrading business development services so they that the match the requirements of SME innovation; attracting foreign direct investment and brokering supply chain linkages with local SMEs; and creating a cluster management organisation to co-ordinate policy. The report makes policy recommendations illustrated by international inspiring policy practice examples in each area. It shares a vision for translating Thailand's new-found biotechnology research strengths into economic development by stimulating innovation absorption by SMEs and commercialisation by start-ups and scale-ups.
  • 9-November-2021


    Procurement strategy in major infrastructure projects - Piloting a new approach in Norway

    Infrastructure investment has been at the forefront of the political debate for more than two decades. Despite decades of theoretical study and experimentation in practice, 'how to' actually procure infrastructure still lacks a complete and evidence-based guide, relying heavily on subjective perception and judgement. Procurement strategy mistakes can substantially increase the cost of infrastructure, delay its delivery, or reduce its quality and value to the public. The OECD has trialled a new evidence- based tool to inform procurement decisions on major projects called Support Tool for Effective Procurement Strategy or STEPS. The tool was applied toon two major road projects in Norway. STEPS can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of public procurement of infrastructure and beyond. It should improve the Value for Money propositions of both traditional and privately financed infrastructure projects. It is also an effective tool against bid rigging, the effects of abnormally low bids, and corruption in public procurement. Because the procurement choices of the public sector impact the market structure of the infrastructure supplier market, it could be considered an instrument of implicit market regulation, working against market concentration. STEPS thus supports a range of OECD recommendations and G20 positions on infrastructure governance, private investment in infrastructure, and procurement in general.
  • 8-November-2021


    Transport Strategies for Net-Zero Systems by Design

    Efforts that primarily focus on incremental change in systems that are unsustainable by design are one of the main barriers to scaling up climate action. This report applies the OECD well-being lens process to the transport sector. It builds on the report Accelerating Climate Action and encourages countries to focus climate action on delivering systems that - by design - improve well-being while requiring less energy and materials, and thus producing less emissions. The report identifies three dynamics at the source of car dependency and high emissions: induced demand, urban sprawl and the erosion of active and shared transport modes. The report also provides policy recommendations to reverse such dynamics and reduce emissions while improving well-being, from radical street redesign, to spatial planning aimed at increasing proximity, and policies to mainstream shared mobility. Analysis also shows why the effectiveness and public acceptability of carbon pricing and policies incentivising vehicle electrification can significantly increase after policy reprioritisation towards systems redesign.
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