Analyse des politiques fiscales

Effective Carbon Rates on Energy in OECD & Selected Partner Economies


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Presented at the COP21 in December 2015, Effective Carbon Rates in the OECD and Selected Partner Economies calculates effective carbon rates (ECR) on CO2-emissions from energy use for 41 countries which together use 80% of global emissions.


The effective carbon rate is the sum of specific taxes on energy use, carbon taxes, and prices of tradable emissions permits, where these apply. It is the total price on carbon emissions from energy use resulting from market-based policy instruments (including specific energy taxes that are not explicitly intended as taxes on carbon emissions but that are economically equivalent.)


The main findings, for 41 countries representing 80% of world emissions in 2012, are as follows:


  • 60% of CO2-emissions from all energy use in the 41 countries are not subject to an ECR at all, 30% are subject to a rate between zero and EUR 30 per tonne of CO2, and 10% to a rate above EUR 30 per tonne. Hence, 90% of emissions are priced below the low-end estimate of the climate cost of CO2-emissions, being EUR 30 per tonne, and 60% of CO2-emissions are not priced at all.
  • Outside of road transport, the ECR is zero for 70% of emissions, and 96% of emissions from energy use are subject to an ECR of less than EUR 30 per tonne of CO2. In road transport, 46% of CO2-emissions in the 41 countries face a rate of more than EUR 30 per tonne of CO2-emissions.


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