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Reports


  • 26-February-2024

    English

    Clean Energy Finance and Investment Roadmap of the Philippines

    In recent years, the Philippines has increased its commitment to climate action and its efforts to decarbonise the domestic economy. The power sector in the Philippines accounts for 58% of the country’s overall carbon emissions and will be an important driver of domestic emission reduction efforts to meet national climate and energy targets. Renewables, such as offshore wind, are expected to play a key role in the transition toward a low-carbon energy mix. With more than 17 thousand kilometres of coastline, the Philippines is estimated to have an offshore wind potential of 178 GW. However, this potential has yet to be leveraged. Alongside a changing power sector, progress on energy efficiency is needed to achieve the country’s emission reduction goals, with energy savings estimated at approximately 2% annually for the residential and commercial sectors. To deliver a clean energy transition, the Philippines requires estimated cumulative investments of over USD 300 billion between now and 2040. This report outlines key actions needed to unlock finance and investment in offshore wind power and energy efficiency in public buildings. It also provides a comprehensive overview of the progress to date and the challenges to mobilise near-term finance in those sectors, assist the Philippines transition towards a low-carbon economy, and achieve broader development goals.
  • 16-February-2024

    English

    Rethinking education in the context of climate change - Leverage points for transformative change

    State-of-the-art scientific evidence shows that our planet is approaching several environmental and climate tipping points faster than previously expected. This means that the international community is facing a rapidly closing window of opportunity to achieve profound transformations across sectors, systems and mindsets to secure a sustainable and liveable future. What is the role of education system in enabling social change at the massive scale and pace needed for climate change mitigation? And what policy levers can they employ to build resilience and adapt to environmental challenges? This paper explores ways to rethink educational approaches in the context of climate change, focussing primarily on school education, while exploring links to other levels of education. It looks specifically at strategies to restructure foundational science education and cross-curricular learning, zooms in on the potential of place-based approaches in empowering learners for action, and concludes by identifying policy levers to increase education system resilience.
  • 15-February-2024

    English

    Scaling Hydrogen Financing for Development

    This report on scaling up clean hydrogen financing provides a unique and in-depth proposal to transform ideas into attractive investment projects. It highlights how policy and financial risk mitigation mechanisms play a critical role in slashing the funding gap and reducing the cost of hydrogen generation. The findings promise to boost clean hydrogen lighthouse projects to revolutionize this multi-billion-dollar industry, so that emerging markets and developing countries can successfully participate in this nascent sector.
  • 14-February-2024

    English

    Fostering Catastrophe Bond Markets in Asia and the Pacific

    As climate change increases exposure to natural disasters, countries need new solutions to mitigate risks of natural hazards. For many in Asia and the Pacific, mobilising existing resources is not enough: they need to consider a grand design of disaster risk financing strategies. Catastrophe bonds (CAT bonds) can be an effective, market-based financing tool for the region. While the global CAT bond market has grown steadily since the 1990s, it remains weakly developed in Asia and the Pacific. Its successful development there requires robust purpose-built legal frameworks; developed general bond markets, especially in local currency; appropriate capacity building; and data-driven pricing models. This report explores each of these conditions along with policy suggestions for fostering them, and discusses the development of multi-country CAT bonds in Asia and the Pacific.
  • 9-February-2024

    English

    Towards more accurate, timely, and granular product-level carbon intensity metrics - A scoping note

    This scoping note presents a high-level overview of the main approaches to, and challenges faced when, calculating product-level carbon intensity metrics, including those applicable to collecting and verifying information across the supply chain. Though the analysis focuses on approaches used in emissions-intensive trade-exposed sectors (EITE), the findings also have broader relevance to other sectors. As part of the analysis, challenges relating to computing sector-level carbon intensity metrics are also considered, particularly as inputs to product-level metrics.
  • 7-February-2024

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Chile 2024

    Chile has made important strides on its environmental agenda in recent years with the passage of the Framework Law on Climate Change, the establishment of the Biodiversity and Protected Areas Service and the ratification of the Escazú Agreement. However, the country has made limited progress in decoupling environmental pressures from economic growth. Greenhouse gas emissions have continued to rise and the country is not on track to reach its legally binding target of net zero by 2050. Chile is well-positioned to achieve its targets for biodiversity, while air pollution remains a serious public health challenge and waste management relies heavily on landfilling. Chile is facing a severe and deepening water crisis that requires concerted action to improve water allocation and water quality, and to strengthen water governance. The review provides 36 recommendations to help Chile improve its environmental performance, with a special focus on water management and policies. This is the third Environmental Performance Review of Chile. It provides an independent, evidence-based evaluation of the country’s environmental performance since the previous review in 2016.
  • 2-February-2024

    English

    Eight lessons learned from comparing ocean economy measurement strategies across countries

    Many ocean economic activities are not readily visible in official statistics, hindering policymakers' access to crucial information for decision making. The OECD ocean economy measurement project aims to address this by aligning ocean economy statistics with broader economic data and ensuring international consistency. This paper compares the measurement strategies of eight OECD member countries using principles from the system of national accounts. It also highlights the ocean economy thematic accounts of four countries and summarises their methods. The paper concludes with recommendations for integrating ocean economy measurements with national accounting standards, a vital step for improving the evidence base for ocean policymaking.
  • 30-January-2024

    English

    Mainstreaming Biodiversity into Renewable Power Infrastructure

    As countries scale up climate action, they face the challenge of expanding renewable power while tackling biodiversity loss. Transitioning away from fossil fuels can reduce climate-related pressure on biodiversity, but brings its own risks. Unless carefully managed, the expansion of renewable power could compromise biodiversity. This report synthesises evidence on biodiversity impacts from renewable power infrastructure, with a focus on solar power, wind power and power lines. It identifies opportunities for mainstreaming biodiversity into power sector planning and policy to deliver better outcomes for nature and the climate. Drawing on good practice insights from across the globe, the report offers governments recommendations to align renewable power expansion with biodiversity goals.
  • 26-January-2024

    English

    Reaching Climate Neutrality for the Hamburg Economy by 2040

    Reaching climate neutrality requires economic transformations of unprecedented scale and speed. Immediate action from the business community can avoid unnecessary costs, create wellbeing co-benefits and prepare local businesses with a better competitive position in the future climate neutral economy. This report shows what reaching climate neutrality by 2040 means for Hamburg businesses and identifies key actions they need to undertake. It provides insights where the Hamburg economy and its businesses stand on the way to climate neutrality and on their needs to advance, drawing on a business survey. The study also shares insights from action plans of selected comparison cities. It points to cross-sector as well as to sector-specific challenges and opportunities for Hamburg businesses. This includes making better use of low-cost renewables, addressing energy efficiency in buildings as well as challenges and opportunities in activities in and around the port and in industry. It highlights Hamburg's potential as a hydrogen hub as well as the need to adopt circular economy practices. It illustrates that a regional and business perspective are necessary to achieve climate neutrality in prosperity, requiring individual and collective business action.
  • 22-January-2024

    English

    Taming wildfires in the context of climate change: The case of the United States

    The frequency and severity of extreme wildfires are on the rise in the United States, causing unprecedented disruption and increasingly challenging the country’s capacity to contain losses and damages. These challenges are set to keep growing in the context of climate change, highlighting the need to scale up wildfire prevention and climate change adaptation. This paper provides an overview of the United States’ wildfire policies and practices and assesses the extent to which wildfire management in the country is evolving to adapt to growing wildfire risk under climate change.
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