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Reports


  • 26-June-2024

    English

    Western Balkans Competitiveness Outlook 2024: Regional Profile

    Inclusive and sustainable economic growth in the six Western Balkan (WB6) economies depends on greater economic competitiveness. Although the gap is closing gradually, the standards of living in WB6 are well below those of the OECD and EU. Accelerating the rate of socio-economic convergence will require a holistic and growth oriented approach to policy making. This is the fourth study of the region (formerly under the title 'Competitiveness in South East Europe') and it comprehensively assesses policy reforms in the WB6 economies across 15 policy areas key to strengthening their competitiveness. It enables WB6 economies to compare economic performance against regional peers, as well as EU-OECD good practices and standards, and to design future policies based on rich evidence and actionable policy recommendations. The regional profile presents assessment findings across five policy clusters crucial to accelerating socio-economic convergence of the WB6 by fostering regional co-operation: business environment, skills, infrastructure and connectivity, digital transformation and greening. Economy-specific profiles complement the regional assessment, offering each WB6 economy an in-depth analysis of their policies supporting competitiveness. They also track the implementation of the previous 2021 study's recommendations and provide additional ones tailored to the economies’ evolving challenges. These recommendations aim to inform structural economic reforms and facilitate the region’s socio-economic convergence towards the standards of the EU and OECD.
  • 24-June-2024

    English

    Economic Instruments for the Circular Economy in Italy - Opportunities for Reform

    EU Funded Note A circular economy keeps the value of resources in the economy for longer, extends the useful lifespan of products and reduces waste, thereby reducing environmental and climatic pressures and increasing domestic competitiveness. Italy is among the leading European actors in transitioning to a circular economy. Its adoption of the National Strategy for the Circular Economy in 2022 reinforced the country’s ambition to rapidly shift from linear to circular modes of production and consumption. Among the envisioned measures, the national strategy calls for a stronger use of economic instruments to achieve a more coherent and effective policy mix. This report identifies opportunities for the enhanced use of economic instruments to support the circular economy in Italy. Part I of this report takes stock of the Italian policy landscape, compares it to international practices and recommends seven policy reforms for further consideration. Part II contains an in-depth analysis of three policy instruments that could reduce demand for virgin materials and promote a shift to secondary materials. These instruments include a virgin materials tax on construction minerals, a reduced VAT rate for products with recycled content and corporate tax credits to promote the use of secondary materials.
  • 14-June-2024

    English

    Taming wildfires in the context of climate change: The case of Greece

    The frequency and severity of extreme wildfires are on the rise in Greece, causing unprecedented disruption and increasingly challenging the country’s capacity to contain losses and damages. These challenges are set to keep growing in the context of climate change, highlighting the need to scale up wildfire prevention and climate change adaptation. This paper provides an overview of Greece's wildfire policies and practices and assesses the extent to which wildfire management in the country is evolving to adapt to growing wildfire risk under climate change.
  • 13-June-2024

    English

    Greenhouse gas emissions data - Concepts and data availability

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions data is essential for tracking progress towards the Paris Agreement’s global temperature goals. In addition to the emissions inventories based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change guidelines, which are used for tracking progress under the framework of the Paris Agreement, there are other GHG emissions datasets that cater to different users and policy objectives. This paper evaluates three OECD datasets on GHG emissions: Air emissions – Greenhouse gas emissions inventories, Agricultural greenhouse gases emissions, and the Air Emissions Accounts (AEAs) based on the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting. It also looks at one dataset from the International Energy Agency: CO2 emissions from fuel combustion. It discusses the inventory and AEA approaches in terms of accounting principles (production- versus demand-based, territory versus residence), as well as classifications and scope of emissions. It looks at the coverage of the GHG emissions datasets and identifies the data gaps. Finally, the paper outlines several steps to enhance data coverage and quality of the datasets.
  • 10-June-2024

    English

    Clean Energy Finance and Investment Roadmap of Thailand

    Thailand has adopted ambitious clean energy targets to meet its long-term climate goals, committing to reach carbon neutrality by 2050 and net zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2065. Transforming Thailand’s energy system, alongside broader development objectives, is critical to meeting these goals as the energy sector accounts for 69% of Thailand’s total GHG emissions. The Clean Energy Finance and Investment Roadmap of Thailand ('the Roadmap') outlines key actions to unlock finance and investment in two clean energy sectors: (i) renewable power, with special attention to small-scale renewable power systems; and (ii) energy efficiency in buildings, with a focus on cooling applications. The two sectors were selected in close consultation with the Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency (DEDE) of the Ministry of Energy of Thailand. The Roadmap provides a comprehensive overview of the progress to date, policy context and challenges to mobilise near-term finance in those sectors, as well as estimates of the finance needs to reach Thailand’s clean energy plans. The report also includes a roadmap action plan, suggesting non-prescriptive recommendations and actions that the Government of Thailand, financial institutions, energy service companies, academia and the international development community active in the country could undertake to foster clean energy investments in Thailand.
  • 29-mai-2024

    Français

    Financement climatique fourni et mobilisé par les pays développés en 2013-2022

    Le rapport décrit les tendances agrégées du financement climatique annuel fourni et mobilisé par les pays développés pour l'action climatique dans les pays en développement au cours de la période 2013-2022. Il présente ces tendances par sources de financement, thèmes climatiques, secteurs, groupes de revenus et types d'instruments financiers. En outre, le rapport explore les tendances du financement de l'adaptation dans le contexte de l'appel du Pacte de Glasgow pour que les pays développés doublent le financement de l'adaptation d'ici 2025, et souligne l'importance croissante des fournisseurs multilatéraux dans le paysage du financement climatique.
  • 29-May-2024

    English

    Assessing the enabling conditions for investment in Armenia's water security - Scorecard pilot test

    This paper is part of a subset of working papers within the Environment Working Paper series, presenting research on the enabling environment for investment in water security. The subset includes country and regional projects aimed at pilot testing the Scorecard, designed to assess the enabling environment for investment in water security. The paper 'Assessing the Enabling Conditions for Investment in Water Security: Scorecard Pilot Test in Asian Countries' delineates the findings from the initial phase. This paper marks the commencement of the second round of pilot tests in the EU’s Eastern Partnership Countries. It presents the results obtained from assessing the enabling environment for investment in water security in Armenia, using the Scorecard. It also presents policy recommendations based on the priority investment barriers identified during stakeholder consultations in the country, involving representatives from various Ministries engaged in water security and international donors. The assessment and recommendations cover the public investment framework and its impact on water-related sectors, the water investment framework, project bankability and sustainability, as well as the contribution of other economic sectors to water security.
  • 28-mai-2024

    Français

    Justice environnementale - Contexte, défis et approches nationales

    Selon les circonstances sociales et économiques, certains groupes et communautés peuvent être plus exposés aux risques environnementaux, supporter une part inéquitable des coûts associés aux politiques environnementales ou être confrontés à davantage d'obstacles pour participer à la prise de décision en matière d'environnement. Alors que les pays redoublent d'efforts pour lutter contre la dégradation de l'environnement, la pollution et le changement climatique, le concept de justice environnementale peut nous éclairer sur la manière de garantir l'équité dans les processus et les résultats de l'élaboration des politiques environnementales. Ce rapport examine le concept de justice environnementale, sa pluralité, ses piliers conceptuels et la manière dont il est apparu dans différents contextes à travers le monde. Le rapport fournit également le premier bilan de la façon dont les gouvernements de l'OCDE et au-delà cherchent à répondre aux préoccupations de justice environnementale. Pour cela, il s'appuie sur les 26 réponses à la nouvelle enquête de l'OCDE sur la justice environnementale ainsi que sur des analyses documentaires complémentaires qui couvrent un plus grand nombre de pays.
  • 27-May-2024

    English

    Insights for designing mitigation elements in the next round of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)

    The Paris Agreement is underpinned by Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) in which Parties set out how they plan to support the Agreement’s long-term temperature goal. Parties are to submit their next NDCs by early 2025, informed by the first global stocktake (GST1). The GST1 sets out key signals and a series of mitigation focused calls in line with 1.5°C pathways that can guide the next generation of NDCs. This paper explores how Parties can prepare enhanced NDCs that take forward GST1 outcomes on mitigation and relevant provisions on NDCs, building on lessons learned from successive NDCs and available follow-up opportunities to support this process. Insights from experiences highlight the interlinkages between enhancing NDC ambition and implementation. Ambitious NDCs underpinned by robust implementation plans and accompanying investment plans can ensure NDCs are action oriented, implementation ready and investable. At the same time, adopting whole-of-government, whole-of-society approaches to NDCs can foster a sense of national ownership and increase social acceptance, leading to more ambitious NDCs and support subsequent implementation. The paper also explores potential guidance that could be relevant for negotiations on NDC features in 2024. While recognising the nationally determined character of NDCs, Parties could use these negotiations to provide clarity on new issues that have emerged since the Paris Agreement was adopted and on existing elements that could benefit from clarification. When addressing negotiations on NDC features, Parties may also want to consider a longer-term perspective beyond the next NDCs and links with other relevant negotiation processes on reporting and transparency.
  • 24-May-2024

    English

    The economics of water scarcity

    This paper examines the current status of water availability, water demand, and influences from climate change in the European Union. It provides an overview of economic policy instruments to address water scarcity and manage water demand. Additionally, the paper explores policy options and considerations for addressing water scarcity and meeting Water Framework Directive (WFD) objectives. These considerations include balancing demand management and supply augmentation, managing water scarcity through robust allocation regimes, and increasing the use of agro-environmental measures and practices. The paper also discusses the principles and features of effective allocation regimes, drivers and incentives for allocation reforms, the hierarchy and sequencing of water use, abstraction charges, ensuring return flows and ecological flows, and improving the coherence of WFD measures and climate change policies. This is the third in a sub-set of four working papers within the Environment Working Paper series destined to support the further implementation of the economic pillar of the Water Framework Directive. The four papers are best read in combination and provide lessons which are relevant beyond the European Union.
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