Publications & Documents

  • 27-October-2023


    Steering responses to climate change from the centre of government - A stocktaking

    This paper takes stock of the institutional set-ups, mechanisms and practices used by governments, and in particular centres of government, to steer climate change policy. To respond effectively to climate change, governments need decision-making and co-ordinating processes that reflect the complexity and pressing nature of the climate crisis, the multitude of stakeholders involved, and the need to balance between short-term and long-term policy objectives. With their unique positioning, centres of government in OECD Member countries often play a crucial role in providing leadership and co-ordination for climate policy. The first part of this paper identifies the institutional arrangements, mandates and skillsets of centres of government for climate-related action. The second part analyses the centre’s stewardship role at different stages of the policy cycle, touching on strategic planning, co-ordination, the development of evidence-informed policies, and monitoring as well as overall efforts to 'green' public administrations.
  • 26-October-2023


    Did COVID-19 accelerate the green transition? - An international assessment of fiscal spending measures to support low-carbon technologies

    Stimulus packages adopted following the COVID-19 pandemic – such as the US Inflation Reduction Act and NextGenerationEU - have been presented as an opportunity to 'build back better' and accelerate the transition to a low-carbon economy while re-igniting the economy. But this revival of industrial policy has also raised concerns about the potential for a global green subsidy war. OECD analysed funding measures worth USD 1.3 trillion announced around the world in 2020-21 to support development and diffusion of low-carbon technologies. These measures can trigger substantial greenhouse gas emissions reductions while boosting the growth of the clean tech sector in all regions and reducing dependence over fossil fuel imports. This policy brief summarises key findings from our analysis and offers additional recommendations to policymakers.
  • 24-October-2023


    Final event - Monitoring Uzbekistan’s Progress towards Green Growth Using the OECD Green Growth Indicators Framework

    The event was a formal launch the main findings of the report: Greening the Economy in Uzbekistan - The State of Play in 2023 and associated web platform.

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  • 19-octobre-2023


    Examens environnementaux de l'OCDE : Costa Rica 2023 (version abrégée)

    En tant que pays mégadivers, le Costa Rica est connu dans le monde entier pour avoir réussi à inverser la déforestation et à poursuivre un modèle de croissance fondé sur l'utilisation durable de ses ressources environnementales. Cependant, la consommation d'énergie et les émissions de gaz à effet de serre qui en découlent ont augmenté au cours de la dernière décennie. Les voitures particulières sont une source majeure et croissante d'émissions affectant le climat et la qualité de l'air. L'élimination des déchets repose encore sur les décharges et une grande partie des eaux usées n'est pas traitée. Le vaste réseau de zones protégées du Costa Rica et son programme pionnier de paiement pour les services écosystémiques ont contribué à réduire la perte de biodiversité et à accroître la capacité de séquestration du carbone par les forêts. Toutefois, davantage doit être fait pour lutter contre les pressions exercées sur la biodiversité par le développement des infrastructures et des établissements humains, le tourisme, l'agriculture et la pêche. L'ampleur des investissements nécessaires pour atteindre les Objectifs de développement durable exige d'améliorer l'efficacité des dépenses publiques, de mobiliser les financements privés, d'appliquer strictement les réglementations et de fournir des incitations adéquates. Il s'agit du premier Examen des performances environnementales du Costa Rica par l'OCDE. Il évalue les progrès réalisés par le pays en matière de développement durable, avec un chapitre spécial consacré à la biodiversité, et fournit 52 recommandations. La présente version abrégée contient le résumé, de même que l’évaluation et les recommandations officielles du rapport.
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  • 17-October-2023


    Assessing greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption in SMEs - Towards a pilot dashboard of SME greening and green entrepreneurship indicators

    This paper presents the first estimates of the OECD project 'Towards a pilot dashboard of SME greening and green entrepreneurship indicators', which is part of broader work of the OECD Committee on SMEs and Entrepreneurship (CSMEE) to support governments in making SMEs active players in the green transition. The paper first explains the rationale behind this measurement exercise, which relates to the importance of monitoring carbon emissions and energy consumption in the business sector, including SMEs, as governments strive to achieve their climate objectives. Thereafter, it gives an overview of the project methodology to produce estimates on the environmental footprint of SMEs. Finally, it presents the first estimates for the first five dashboard indicators: i) SME share of greenhouse gas emissions in the business sector; ii) SME share of energy consumption in the business sector; iii) SME greenhouse gas emissions (carbon) intensity; iv) SME energy intensity; v) SME energy price burden The paper also presents evidence on real SME electricity and gas consumption in Denmark thanks to pilot work with Statistics Denmark. A final Annex explains the project methodology in detail.
  • 12-October-2023


    Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Freshwater - Monitoring and Regulating Water Quality

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are contaminants of emerging environmental and health concern that have been detected in freshwater, wastewater and drinking water. They interfere with the endocrine system in humans and wildlife, and produce adverse effects such as developmental, reproductive, neurological and immune effects. Their presence in water raises concerns for the integrity of ecosystems and biodiversity. Addressing the challenges of EDCs in water is particularly complex due to their ability to trigger adverse effects at very low concentrations, their potency in mixtures with other chemicals, and the vast range of sources and entryways of this group of chemicals into the environment. This report presents new water quality monitoring methods, such as bioassays and non-targeted analysis, that are well equipped to capture the impacts of EDCs in water. These new methods supplement the traditional substance-by-substance chemical analysis of water quality. The report also outlines policy instruments to manage the chemicals’ lifecycle from source to end-of-pipe. It proposes tools and regulations that respond to the negative effects of endocrine disruption, even if the culprit chemical is still unknown. The analysis draws on case studies from OECD countries to provide practical examples and concrete policy actions.
  • 12-October-2023


    Methodological Guidelines for Environmentally Related Tax Revenue Accounts

    This report presents the OECD methodological guidelines for compiling Environmentally Related Tax Revenue accounts. The guidelines are in line with the System of Environmental Economic Accounting and ensure consistency with national and international data sources and manuals. The OECD guidelines are based on those of Eurostat with refinements and additional memo items. First, revenue from greenhouse gas taxes is split into two sub-categories: an energy-related part (recorded as an energy tax) and a non-energy-related part (recorded as a pollution tax). Second, four 'memo items' are introduced to enhance the relevance of the accounts for policy work: (i) certain land taxes, (ii) taxes on oil and natural gas extraction, (iii) taxes on the resource rent and (iv) elevated VAT levied on environmentally related tax bases. The practical application of these guidelines was successfully pilot-tested in 2018-19, and the guidelines were implemented in the 2019 and 2021 rounds of data collection from OECD member and partner countries. The results show that it is feasible to compile the accounts, including the refinements and the additions outlined in this document, across OECD and beyond.
  • 10-October-2023


    OECD Secretary-General Report to G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors on the work of the Inclusive Forum on Carbon Mitigation Approaches (Morocco, October 2023)

    This report presents developments of the work of the Inclusive Forum on Carbon Mitigation Approaches (IFCMA) since its official launch in February 2023.
  • 6-October-2023


    Towards Climate Resilience and Neutrality in Latin America and the Caribbean - Key Policy Priorities

    While many countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have committed to achieving climate neutrality and building resilience, translating these commitments into actions is imperative. This requires, for instance, better management of increasing risks from climate change and climate variability, as well as reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through promoting innovation and green investments. Achieving these goals will require comprehensive long-term strategic and financial planning, a more integrated and inclusive approach, which better aligns adaptation and mitigation policies and measures across different sectors, albeit at a differentiated level. This report identifies LAC countries’ main climate change policy priorities, which were discussed through a series of Regional Policy Dialogues and Expert Workshops and complements these with findings of recent analyses by the OECD and other international partners. It explores issues related to their implementation on climate adaptation, mitigation, and cross-cutting policy areas. The report covers various economic sectors, ranging from energy, transport, agriculture and tourism, as well as environment-related policies on infrastructure, water, biodiversity and ecosystems. The report also explores cross-cutting topics, such as climate governance and finance, environmental information, technology transfer, circular economy, oceans, gender equality and education. To overcome challenges and grasp the opportunities associated with a transition towards climate resilience and neutrality, the report proposes an Action Plan, with 40 key policy recommendations.
  • 3-October-2023


    Managing Climate Risks and Impacts Through Due Diligence for Responsible Business Conduct - A Tool for Institutional Investors

    This report explores how institutional investors can apply risk-based due diligence as recommended by the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises on Responsible Business Conduct and help them prevent and mitigate adverse climate impacts associated with their investee companies on society and the environment. It provides practical recommendations on how to conduct due diligence as a way to connect climate commitments at portfolio level with real-economy impacts and draws on other frameworks and tools for assessing, managing or disclosing climate impacts associated with investments.
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