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Publications & Documents


  • 14-April-2021

    English

    Assessment of the air pollution tax and emission concentration limits in the Czech Republic

    This paper assesses the design of the air pollution tax in conjunction with a stringency analysis of the emission concentration limits in the Czech Republic. The analysis draws upon a detailed database containing environmental reporting by industrial stationary sources. The assessment of the emission concentration limits focuses on analysing the shift of the statutory limits between 2013 and 2017 and the corresponding real-life measured concentration on individual source basis. It provides an assessment of stringency of the air protection instrument and also of the vintage differentiation applied in the form of transitional schemes. The stringency analysis of the emission concentration limits stringency is related to the air pollution tax relief provision.
  • 7-April-2021

    English

    Tax Policy and Climate Change: IMF/OECD Report for the G20

    This report focuses on carbon pricing, taking stock of current pricing patterns, identifying reform needs to meet mitigation pledges, impacts, and opportunities, and comprehensive approaches to address political economy concerns.

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  • 1-April-2021

    English

    The economic and environmental benefits from international co-ordination on carbon pricing - Insights from economic modelling studies

    This paper assesses quantitative estimates based on economic modelling studies of the economic and environmental benefits from different forms of international co-ordination on carbon pricing. Forms of international co-ordination include: harmonising carbon prices (e.g. through linking carbon markets), extending the coverage of pricing schemes, phasing out fossil fuel subsidies, developing international sectoral agreements, and establishing co-ordination mechanisms to mitigate carbon leakage. All forms of international co-operation on carbon pricing can deliver benefits, both economic (e.g. lower mitigation costs) and/or environmental (e.g. reducing GHG emissions and carbon leakage). Benefits tend to be higher with broader participation of countries, broader coverage of emissions and sectors and more ambitious policy goals. Most, but not all, countries gain economic benefits from international co-operation, and these benefits vary significantly across countries and regions. Complementary measures outside co-operation on carbon pricing (e.g. technology transfers) could ensure that co-operation provides economic benefits for all countries.
  • 31-mars-2021

    Français

    Examens environnementaux de l'OCDE : Belgique 2021 (Version abrégée)

    La Belgique a progressé en découplant plusieurs pressions environnementales de la croissance économique, en améliorant l’épuration des eaux usées et en étendant les zones protégées. Les régions ont atteint des niveaux élevés de récupération et de recyclage et ont été les pionnières des politiques d'économie circulaire. Toutefois, des efforts supplémentaires sont nécessaires pour progresser vers la neutralité carbone, réduire la pollution de l'air et de l'eau, enrayer la perte de biodiversité et consolider les résultats des initiatives d'économie circulaire. Le renforcement de la coordination entre le gouvernement fédéral et les régions, et entre les régions, ainsi que l'amélioration de la cohérence des politiques seront des facteurs clés de progrès. À mesure que l'urgence COVID-19 se fait moins pressante, les efforts de redressement devraient viser à remettre le pays sur la bonne voie pour atteindre les objectifs de développement durable. Investir dans les infrastructures vertes et à faible émission de carbone, promouvoir l'économie circulaire, renforcer le prix du carbone et supprimer progressivement les subventions néfastes à l'environnement devraient être des priorités. Ce rapport est le troisième Examen environnemental de la Belgique. Il évalue les progrès réalisés vers le développement durable et la croissance verte, avec des chapitres spéciaux sur la biodiversité, la gestion des déchets et des matières et l'économie circulaire. Cette version abrégée contient le résumé, ainsi que l’évaluation et les recommandations officielles du rapport, qui reposent sur les trois chapitres consacrés aux évolutions et faits récents, à la gouvernance et à la croissance verte, ainsi que sur les deux chapitres qui examinent en détail la problématique de la biodiversité, et celle de la gestion des déchets et des matières et l'économie circulaire. La version intégrale du rapport est disponible en anglais sur le site de l’OCDE.
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  • 30-March-2021

    English

    OECD Companion to the Inventory of Support Measures for Fossil Fuels 2021

    This report draws on more than 1 300 government budgetary transfers and tax expenditures providing preferential treatment for the production and consumption of fossil fuels as documented in the 2020 OECD Inventory of Support Measures for Fossil Fuels to track progress in reform of support. It sets out principal trends across 50 OECD, G20 and European Union (EU) Eastern Partnership (EaP) economies, including as resulting from the COVID-19 crisis and novel sectoral decomposition of Inventory data. It reports on developments in tracking and monitoring fossil fuel support in the context of the G20 and the UN Sustainable Development Goals, and with respect to enhancing the interpretation of tax expenditure data. Finally, the report offers a sequential framework to assist governments assess and address the effects of fossil-fuel support measures and their reform, given ongoing challenges in gaining traction for reform.
  • 29-March-2021

    English

    Monitoring Ukraine’s Progress towards Green Economy using Green Growth Indicators

    Within EU4Environment, the kick-off meeting on “Monitoring Ukraine’s Progress towards Green Economy using Green Growth Indicators” launched the work to update the pilot set of the OECD-based green growth indicators in the country. This work will help raise awareness, measure progress and identify opportunities and risks in implementing the National Environmental Policy Strategy until 2030.

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  • 29-March-2021

    English

    Measuring the alignment of real economy investments with climate mitigation objectives - The United Kingdom’s buildings sector

    This paper explores data and methods to assess the alignment or misalignment with climate mitigation objectives of investments in the construction and refurbishment of residential and non-residential buildings. It takes the United Kingdom (UK) as a case study, where such investments reached GBP 162 billion (EUR 184 billion) in 2019 or 39% of UK gross fixed capital formation. The analysis trials different reference points that lead to varying results and each currently come with limitations in terms of coverage or granularity. Sector-level greenhouse gas (GHG) trajectories indicate that, in aggregate, investments in UK buildings have been insufficient, delayed or not aligned enough with caps set by UK Carbon Budgets, but such trajectories currently lack disaggregation for a more granular and insightful matching with investment data. Energy performance certificates (EPCs) allow for asset-level analyses: for instance, 79% of 2010-2019 investments in new built residential were in relatively energy efficient buildings but only 1% were consistent with more demanding recommendations towards the UK’s objective of reaching net-zero GHG in 2050. The coverage and reliability of EPCs, however, needs to be improved for older buildings, whose deep retrofitting is a major financing challenge. Applying Climate Bonds Initiative criteria for low-carbon buildings identifies investments eligible for green bond financing, but such criteria have partial sectoral coverage and are based on currently most efficient buildings within the existing stock, which makes them relatively easy to meet for investments in new built. Producing more complete and policy relevant assessments of aligned and misaligned investments at national and sectoral levels requires the availability of and access to comparable and granular data on decarbonisation targets and pathways consistent with the Paris Agreement temperature goals, GHG performance of assets, corporate and household investments, as well as underlying sources of financing.
  • 26-March-2021

    English

    Financing water security for sustainable growth in Asia and the Pacific

    The Asia Water Development Outlook – a flagship publication by the Asian Development Bank - monitors progress in water security in the Asia Pacific region. For the first time, the 2020 edition documents financing flows that contribute to – or that are needed to enhance – water security in the region. Working in close collaboration with the Asian Development Bank and partners, the OECD endeavoured to characterise funding needs and financing flows for water security in the region. The approach and methodology derive from a similar endeavour covering the European region, but were adjusted to reflect the distinctive features of the region, in terms of the state of play, policy, and data availability. This paper compiles available data and analyses, and derives policy messages, for countries in the region and their partners (including development finance institutions). It characterises an enabling environment that can facilitate and expedite financing for water security commensurate with the challenges and distinctive opportunities in the region.
  • 25-March-2021

    English

    Water Governance in Peru

    While COVID 19 has hit Peru particularly hard, with about 1.4 million cases as of March 2021, the pandemic further emphasised the importance of water and sanitation for health, the environment and the economy. The country is not yet on track to meet the targets of SDG 6 'Clean water and sanitation' by 2030, with 3 million Peruvians (9.2% of the population) lacking access to water services and 8.2 million Peruvians (25.2%) lacking access to sewerage services, and a large urban rural divide. In addition, between 2000 and 2020, floods affected an estimated 4.43 million people, while inadequate management of solid waste and some economic activities are amongst the causes of water pollution, leading to severe public health issues, and social conflicts. In the face of climate change and demographic growth, strengthening water governance in Peru is key for long term water security improvements. The report provides an analysis of water governance in the country and policy recommendations to: strengthen the multi sectoral approach to water; improve the use of economic instruments to protect and sustainably use water resources, its sources and related ecosystem services; and strengthen regulatory conditions to improved access to safe drinking water and sanitation in urban and rural areas.
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  • 25-March-2021

    English

    Assessing the impact of energy prices on plant-level environmental and economic performance - Evidence from Indonesian manufacturers

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of the impact of energy price increases – induced notably by the removal of fossil fuel subsidies – on the joint environmental and economic performance of Indonesian plants in the manufacturing industry for the period 1980-2015. The paper shows that a 10% increase in energy prices causes a a reduction in energy use by 5.2% and a reduction in CO2 emissions by 5.8% on average, with more energy-intensive sectors responding more to the shocks. At the same time, energy price increases increase the probability of plant exit and reduce employment of large and energy intensive plants, but the estimated effect is very small (-0.2% for a 10% increase in energy prices). Morevoer, energy price changes have no significant influence on net job creation at the industry-wide level, suggesting that jobs are not lost but reallocated from energy-intensive to energy-efficient firms. Overall, the empirical evidence demonstrates that environmental fiscal reforms in emerging economies like Indonesia can bring about large environmental benefits with little to no effect on employment.
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