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  • 24-October-2023

    English

    Final event - Monitoring Uzbekistan’s Progress towards Green Growth Using the OECD Green Growth Indicators Framework

    The event was a formal launch the main findings of the report: Greening the Economy in Uzbekistan - The State of Play in 2023 and associated web platform.

    Related Documents
  • 19-octobre-2023

    Français

    Examens environnementaux de l'OCDE : Costa Rica 2023 (version abrégée)

    En tant que pays mégadivers, le Costa Rica est connu dans le monde entier pour avoir réussi à inverser la déforestation et à poursuivre un modèle de croissance fondé sur l'utilisation durable de ses ressources environnementales. Cependant, la consommation d'énergie et les émissions de gaz à effet de serre qui en découlent ont augmenté au cours de la dernière décennie. Les voitures particulières sont une source majeure et croissante d'émissions affectant le climat et la qualité de l'air. L'élimination des déchets repose encore sur les décharges et une grande partie des eaux usées n'est pas traitée. Le vaste réseau de zones protégées du Costa Rica et son programme pionnier de paiement pour les services écosystémiques ont contribué à réduire la perte de biodiversité et à accroître la capacité de séquestration du carbone par les forêts. Toutefois, davantage doit être fait pour lutter contre les pressions exercées sur la biodiversité par le développement des infrastructures et des établissements humains, le tourisme, l'agriculture et la pêche. L'ampleur des investissements nécessaires pour atteindre les Objectifs de développement durable exige d'améliorer l'efficacité des dépenses publiques, de mobiliser les financements privés, d'appliquer strictement les réglementations et de fournir des incitations adéquates. Il s'agit du premier Examen des performances environnementales du Costa Rica par l'OCDE. Il évalue les progrès réalisés par le pays en matière de développement durable, avec un chapitre spécial consacré à la biodiversité, et fournit 52 recommandations. La présente version abrégée contient le résumé, de même que l’évaluation et les recommandations officielles du rapport.
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  • 17-October-2023

    English

    Assessing greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption in SMEs - Towards a pilot dashboard of SME greening and green entrepreneurship indicators

    This paper presents the first estimates of the OECD project 'Towards a pilot dashboard of SME greening and green entrepreneurship indicators', which is part of broader work of the OECD Committee on SMEs and Entrepreneurship (CSMEE) to support governments in making SMEs active players in the green transition. The paper first explains the rationale behind this measurement exercise, which relates to the importance of monitoring carbon emissions and energy consumption in the business sector, including SMEs, as governments strive to achieve their climate objectives. Thereafter, it gives an overview of the project methodology to produce estimates on the environmental footprint of SMEs. Finally, it presents the first estimates for the first five dashboard indicators: i) SME share of greenhouse gas emissions in the business sector; ii) SME share of energy consumption in the business sector; iii) SME greenhouse gas emissions (carbon) intensity; iv) SME energy intensity; v) SME energy price burden The paper also presents evidence on real SME electricity and gas consumption in Denmark thanks to pilot work with Statistics Denmark. A final Annex explains the project methodology in detail.
  • 12-October-2023

    English

    Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Freshwater - Monitoring and Regulating Water Quality

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are contaminants of emerging environmental and health concern that have been detected in freshwater, wastewater and drinking water. They interfere with the endocrine system in humans and wildlife, and produce adverse effects such as developmental, reproductive, neurological and immune effects. Their presence in water raises concerns for the integrity of ecosystems and biodiversity. Addressing the challenges of EDCs in water is particularly complex due to their ability to trigger adverse effects at very low concentrations, their potency in mixtures with other chemicals, and the vast range of sources and entryways of this group of chemicals into the environment. This report presents new water quality monitoring methods, such as bioassays and non-targeted analysis, that are well equipped to capture the impacts of EDCs in water. These new methods supplement the traditional substance-by-substance chemical analysis of water quality. The report also outlines policy instruments to manage the chemicals’ lifecycle from source to end-of-pipe. It proposes tools and regulations that respond to the negative effects of endocrine disruption, even if the culprit chemical is still unknown. The analysis draws on case studies from OECD countries to provide practical examples and concrete policy actions.
  • 12-October-2023

    English

    Methodological Guidelines for Environmentally Related Tax Revenue Accounts

    This report presents the OECD methodological guidelines for compiling Environmentally Related Tax Revenue accounts. The guidelines are in line with the System of Environmental Economic Accounting and ensure consistency with national and international data sources and manuals. The OECD guidelines are based on those of Eurostat with refinements and additional memo items. First, revenue from greenhouse gas taxes is split into two sub-categories: an energy-related part (recorded as an energy tax) and a non-energy-related part (recorded as a pollution tax). Second, four 'memo items' are introduced to enhance the relevance of the accounts for policy work: (i) certain land taxes, (ii) taxes on oil and natural gas extraction, (iii) taxes on the resource rent and (iv) elevated VAT levied on environmentally related tax bases. The practical application of these guidelines was successfully pilot-tested in 2018-19, and the guidelines were implemented in the 2019 and 2021 rounds of data collection from OECD member and partner countries. The results show that it is feasible to compile the accounts, including the refinements and the additions outlined in this document, across OECD and beyond.
  • 6-October-2023

    English

    Towards Climate Resilience and Neutrality in Latin America and the Caribbean - Key Policy Priorities

    While many countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have committed to achieving climate neutrality and building resilience, translating these commitments into actions is imperative. This requires, for instance, better management of increasing risks from climate change and climate variability, as well as reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through promoting innovation and green investments. Achieving these goals will require comprehensive long-term strategic and financial planning, a more integrated and inclusive approach, which better aligns adaptation and mitigation policies and measures across different sectors, albeit at a differentiated level. This report identifies LAC countries’ main climate change policy priorities, which were discussed through a series of Regional Policy Dialogues and Expert Workshops and complements these with findings of recent analyses by the OECD and other international partners. It explores issues related to their implementation on climate adaptation, mitigation, and cross-cutting policy areas. The report covers various economic sectors, ranging from energy, transport, agriculture and tourism, as well as environment-related policies on infrastructure, water, biodiversity and ecosystems. The report also explores cross-cutting topics, such as climate governance and finance, environmental information, technology transfer, circular economy, oceans, gender equality and education. To overcome challenges and grasp the opportunities associated with a transition towards climate resilience and neutrality, the report proposes an Action Plan, with 40 key policy recommendations.
  • 3-October-2023

    English

    Managing Climate Risks and Impacts Through Due Diligence for Responsible Business Conduct - A Tool for Institutional Investors

    This report explores how institutional investors can apply risk-based due diligence as recommended by the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises on Responsible Business Conduct and help them prevent and mitigate adverse climate impacts associated with their investee companies on society and the environment. It provides practical recommendations on how to conduct due diligence as a way to connect climate commitments at portfolio level with real-economy impacts and draws on other frameworks and tools for assessing, managing or disclosing climate impacts associated with investments.
  • 29-September-2023

    English

    Environment at a Glance Indicators

    This new web format for Environment at a Glance Indicators provides real-time interactive on-line access to the latest comparable OECD-country data on the environment from the OECD Core Set of Environmental Indicators – a tool to evaluate environmental performance in countries and to track the course towards sustainable development. The web version allows users to play with the data and graphics, download and share them, and consult and download thematic web-books. These indicators provide key messages on major environmental trends in areas such as climate change, biodiversity, water resources, air quality, circular economy and ocean resources. They are accompanied by a short Environment at a Glance report that presents a digest of the key messages stemming from the indicators.
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  • 28-September-2023

    English

    Watered down? Investigating the financial materiality of water-related risks in the financial system

    Water-related risks are intrinsically linked to both climate and nature challenges and can be closely tied to socio-economic challenges, such as poverty, food security, and domestic and international conflicts. There is increasing evidence that water-related risks are financially material across actors in the financial system, and further still, that there may be important implications for financial stability. However, a review of current practices indicates that these risks are not fully captured by current approaches to assessing risk. This working paper explores how the financial sector understands the concept of financial materiality as a lever for decision making on water-related climate and nature risks. The paper also looks at how regulatory and supervisory guidance considers water in the context of climate and nature risks, and finally how sustainable finance tools and initiatives can support market participants in gaining an improved understanding of water-related risks.
  • 28-September-2023

    English

    Paris-consistent climate change mitigation scenarios - A framework for emissions pathway classification in line with global mitigation objectives

    Since the adoption of the Paris Agreement, governments and economic actors have increasingly been setting greenhouse gas emissions reduction or net zero targets. Amidst risks of delayed action and greenwashing, there is need to understand whether climate related targets and transition plans are consistent with the Paris Agreement. Climate change mitigation scenarios can be used as inputs to design such targets and plans, and as benchmarks to assess progress towards them. In this context, this paper proposes criteria for selecting global climate change mitigation scenarios that can be considered consistent with the Paris Agreement temperature goal and emissions objectives, based on state-of-the-art literature on climate science and mitigation scenarios.
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