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  • 14-décembre-2023

    Français

    Taux effectifs sur le carbone 2023 (version abrégée) - Tarification des émissions de gaz à effet de serre au moyen de taxes et d’échanges de quotas d’émission

    Une transition réussie vers zéro émission nette de gaz à effet de serre (GES) nécessite des politiques d'atténuation efficaces, incluant des mesures de tarification du carbone : un instrument au bon rapport coût/efficacité qui non seulement réduit les émissions, mais génère également des revenus pour soutenir la transition. Cette quatrième édition des Taux effectifs sur le carbone offre une vue d'ensemble des systèmes de tarification du carbone en présentant les droits d’accise sur les combustibles et les carburants, les taxes sur le carbone et les systèmes d'échange de quotas d'émission (SEQE) jusqu'en 2021, tout en incluant certains développements jusqu'en 2023. Les mesures présentées ont un impact direct sur le coût des émissions de gaz à effet de serre, orientant ainsi les décisions de production, de consommation et d'investissement vers des options à faible teneur en carbone ou à teneur nulle en carbone. L'analyse porte sur 72 pays qui, ensemble, représentent environ 80 % des émissions mondiales de GES. Le rapport met l'accent sur l'évolution des systèmes d'échange de quotas d'émission et des taxes sur les carburants dans le contexte de la crise énergétique et fournit des données complètes et comparables sur l'état actuel de la tarification des émissions de GES, ce qui peut aider les décideurs politiques à identifier des priorités et à affiner leurs stratégies d'atténuation des émissions de carbone.
  • 14-December-2023

    English

    OECD Inventory of Support Measures for Fossil Fuels: Country Notes

    This new web format for Country Notes on Fossil Fuel Support provides interactive on-line access to the latest data from the OECD Inventory of Support Measures for Fossil Fuels by country – identifying and estimating the value of support arising from policies that encourage the production or consumption of fossil fuels. The web version allows users to download, share and play with the data. Interactive graphics enable data visualisation, in national currency, by beneficiary and by energy product. These Country Notes provide, for each of the 50 economies covered in the Inventory, a snapshot of energy market structure, the current state of energy prices and taxes, and recent developments and trends in fossil fuel support. Data and country notes for the EU Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries have been collected and prepared as part of the GREEN Action Task Force.
  • 13-December-2023

    English

    SME Policy Index: Eastern Partner Countries 2024 - Building Resilience in Challenging Times

    The SME Policy Index: Eastern Partner Countries 2024 – Building resilience in challenging times is a unique benchmarking tool to assess and monitor progress in the design and implementation of SME policies against EU and international best practice. It embraces the priorities laid out in the European Union’s SME Strategy for a sustainable and digital Europe and is structured around the ten principles of the Small Business Act for Europe, which provide a wide range of measures to guide the design and implementation of SME policies. This report marks the fourth edition in this series, following assessments in 2012, 2016, and 2020. It tracks progress made since 2020 and offers the latest key findings on SME development and related policies in the countries of the Eastern Partnership (EaP). It also identifies emerging challenges affecting SMEs in the region and provides recommendations to address them. The 2024 edition benefits from an updated methodology that also offers a deeper analysis of policies to support the digital transformation of SMEs.
  • 12-décembre-2023

    Français

    Pavillon virtuel de l'OCDE pour la COP28

    Découvrez la rediffusion des sessions du Pavillon virtuel de l'OCDE de la COP28 du 23 novembre au 12 décembre 2023, couvrant un éventail de sujets et réunissant des experts, des décideurs politiques et la société civile. Le Pavillon a présenté les contributions de l'OCDE pour conduire une action efficace à l'échelle mondiale sur le changement climatique.

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  • 12-December-2023

    English

    Review of energy subsidies in the context of energy sector reforms in Ukraine

    This study evaluates the progress of fossil-fuel subsidy reform in Ukraine since its launch in 2016 using the OECD 'bottom-up', inventory, approach. It also identifies major subsidy schemes that need significant reform. The report reflects the energy subsidy policies and reforms in Ukraine prior to Russia’s full-scale invasion in February 2022. The analysis covers: budgetary transfers, government revenue foregone (or tax expenditure), induced transfers in the form of cross-subsidies or below market tariffs and transfer of risk to government. The study also covers fossil-fuels subsidies to production and consumption, particularly, for natural gas, coal and electricity generated from fossil fuels while support for energy efficiency and renewables is considered for comparative purposes. This report also briefly discusses the taxation and energy pricing policies in Ukraine that have had direct or indirect impact on the evolution of fossil-fuel subsidies in the country. Detailed estimates of all individual support measures are provided in the Annexes to the report.
  • 11-December-2023

    English

    Trade policies to promote the circular economy: A case study of the plastics value chain

    Plastic products present several environmental, health, social and economic challenges that span from the extraction of raw materials to primary and final plastics production, to their distribution and use, and to the collection and sorting of plastic waste. International trade, which has facilitated the development of plastics supply chains, also comes with a range of challenges, such as a surge in demand for plastics ― notably in packaging ― difficulties to monitor plastics embedded in other products, and an increased risk of plastic waste leaking in countries that have less rigorous environmental regulations. Yet trade can also serve as a vehicle to access foreign pollution control technologies or to foster economies of scale for circular economy practices. Indeed, the implementation of circular economy solutions through trade policies is crucial in addressing plastic pollution. Such policies could include reduced tariffs on environmentally-friendly alternatives to plastic products; trade facilitation measures for reverse supply chains; or technical regulations, standards, labelling schemes, and conformity assessment procedures that promote product designs which will minimise pollution throughout the entire plastic lifecycle.
  • 7-December-2023

    English

    Financing Uzbekistan’s Green Transition - Capital Market Development and Opportunities for Green Bond Issuance

    The scale of Uzbekistan’s green transition requires a marked increase in private financing to fill the existing spending gap. The outsized role of the state in Uzbekistan’s economy and its underdeveloped domestic capital market act as significant constraints and call for a diversification of sources to finance the green transition. Since 2021, Uzbekistan has made green bonds a central part of its strategy to fill the financing gap and mobilise new sources of capital for its domestic green infrastructure projects. This publication explores the current market and institutional set-up in Uzbekistan, the reforms that have led to recent issuances of both sovereign and corporate thematic bonds, and the remaining barriers to further uptake of the instrument. The report also provides policy recommendations related to the market's institutional set up, Uzbekistan's regulatory framework for debt capital markets and emerging opportunities for further green bond use aimed at key stakeholders, including policy makers and market participants.
  • 7-December-2023

    English

    Promoting nature-based solutions in municipalities in Hungary

    Nature-based solutions (NbS) aim to maintain, enhance and restore ecosystems to address a variety of social, economic and environmental challenges, including climate change and biodiversity loss. This paper applies the OECD’s framework to provide recommendations for how to encourage the use of NbS by Hungarian municipalities. It illustrates some of the key challenges in the local implementation of NbS in Hungary and provides international examples of how they are tackled in diverse contexts. It also discusses the role of reforms about the enabling environment to mobilise further public and private investment in climate adaptation.
  • 6-December-2023

    English

    A Territorial Approach to Climate Action and Resilience

    Global warming is likely to reach 1.5°C as early as in 2030, with current climate action falling short of meeting the Paris Agreement goals and a mounting risk of tipping beyond the ability of human societies to adapt. Building on broader OECD work on climate, this report proposes a new OECD territorial climate indicator framework and demonstrates that the potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, adapt to climate impacts and address vulnerabilities varies across different territories. The report also presents a policy framework of 9 recommended actions to help decision makers unleash more effective climate action and resilience, both by integrating a territorial approach into national and subnational climate policies and by mainstreaming climate objectives into urban, rural and regional policies. The report summarises the analysis into a checklist for national and local governments to implement a territorial approach to climate and resilience policies, as well as a compendium of 36 best practices from cities, regions and countries from all around the world.
  • 5-December-2023

    English

    Assessing net-zero metrics for financial institutions - Supporting the monitoring of financial institutions’ commitments

    Financial markets need clear information and credible metrics to inform climate-related investment and financing decisions. This report explores key challenges and opportunities related to the transparency, specificity and integrity of metrics to support the monitoring of financial institutions’ net-zero commitments. It provides an assessment of metrics put forward in five voluntary frameworks, identifies the type of information and metrics proposed, their common themes and gaps, as well as limitations in underlying methodological guidance that may hinder financial institutions’ ability to report and disclose metrics. The report highlights a need both for continued efforts to develop robust metrics and incentivise improved data disclosure, as well as for international co-operation to reduce fragmentation and provide further transparency on the scope of metrics and underlying methodologies.
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