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  • 18-April-2024

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Slovak Republic 2024

    The Slovak Republic has reduced some environmental pressures over the past decade. However, it needs to do more to reduce air pollution, improve waste and wastewater treatment and move towards carbon neutrality. Since 2011, the country has taken important steps to improve its biodiversity policy. Slovakia needs to now align its strategy with the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework and the EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030. Most species and habitats are in an unfavourable state and biodiversity considerations are not sufficiently integrated into sectoral policies. This is the third Environmental Performance Review of the Slovak Republic. It provides an evidence-based assessment of the country's progress towards its environmental goals over the past decade. The 29 recommendations aim to help Slovakia improve its environmental performance, giving special focus to biodiversity and forests in the context of climate change.
  • 17-April-2024

    English

    Development Finance for Climate and Environment

    The OECD DAC measures and monitors development finance targeting climate change objectives using two Rio markers: Climate Change Mitigation and Climate Change Adaptation.

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  • 17-April-2024

    English

    Extended Producer Responsibility - Basic facts and key principles

    Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) is a policy approach that makes producers responsible for their products along the entire lifecycle, including at the post-consumer stage. This policy paper summarises the current consensus on the EPR policy approach. By taking stock of what's known and well established in the literature, it aims to foster a common understanding of the EPR approach and to provide guiding principles for its successful implementation. This paper makes a valuable contribution to an increasing number of policy debates and processes that are ongoing, both at national and international levels, in areas such as plastics, electric and electronic waste and textiles.
  • 16-April-2024

    English

  • 15-April-2024

    English

    Monitoring trade in plastic waste and scrap

    Global trade in plastic waste and scrap declined further (2017-2022) in 2022. The combined trade surplus of OECD Member Countries (i.e. the difference between exports and imports) continued to decrease. Less plastic waste and scrap is being exported by OECD countries to non-OECD countries, however some countries still export substantial volumes to non-OECD countries. Particularly several non-OECD south-east Asian countries remain large export destinations. Trade between OECD countries has increased. The value and composition of plastic waste and scrap exports in 2021 suggests that more high value and easy to recycle plastic waste was traded. Some volume of plastics waste is likely transformed into a 'fuel' via mechanical and chemical processing and subsequently shipped as Processed Engineered Fuel (PEF) or Refuse-Derived Fuels (RDF), broadly categorised under HS 3825. There was an increase in this trade mostly between OECD countries in 2021. The trade regime remains dynamic with new export destinations emerging, which deserve further monitoring.
  • 9-avril-2024

    Français

    Des investissements massifs dans les infrastructures durables sont nécessaires pour renforcer la résilience face au changement climatique

    En 2023, des températures mondiales record de l’ordre de 1.4 degré Celsius au-dessus des moyennes préindustrielles ont entraîné davantage de vagues de chaleur et d’inondations, un allongement de la durée des saisons de feux de forêt et des sécheresses à grande échelle.

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  • 9-avril-2024

    Français

    Des infrastructures pour un avenir résilient face au changement climatique

    Ce rapport fournit une vue d'ensemble des effets du changement climatique sur les infrastructures et des principaux domaines dans lesquels les pouvoirs publics peuvent intervenir pour les rendre plus résilientes. Y sont examinées les avancées obtenues et les lacunes à combler dans la planification et le développement des infrastructures tout au long de leur cycle de vie pour intégrer la résilience climatique, ainsi que la question de savoir comment favoriser cette intégration par une approche territoriale. L’analyse porte également sur la manière de renforcer la prise de conscience et la compréhension des risques climatiques et d’en imposer la prise en compte dans toutes les décisions de financement et d'investissement, à l’aide de normes et d’instruments financiers qui intègrent l'adaptation et la résilience climatiques. Les solutions fondées sur la nature occupent une place particulière dans le rapport, qui donne des pistes pour en tirer parti efficacement, au service de la résilience climatique. Il est également reconnu que le développement économique des pays en développement suppose d’accorder une attention mondiale aux besoins qui leur sont propres ainsi que de renforcer le soutien et les partenariats internationaux. Ces travaux apportent des éléments utiles sur l’action à mener et plaident pour que les responsables de l’élaboration des politiques nationales et infranationales adoptent une approche de la résilience fondée sur une gouvernance pluri-niveaux, en travaillant avec les propriétaires et les exploitants d'infrastructures pour soutenir la prise de décision.
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  • 22-March-2024

    English

    Nature-based solutions for flood management in Asia and the Pacific

    Countries in Asia and the Pacific face a heightened risk of flooding as disasters increase worldwide due to climate change. Yet these countries often lack the infrastructure necessary to prepare for and respond to floods effectively. When flood protection measures exist, they generally rely only on grey, hard-engineered infrastructure, which has been increasingly challenged in recent years. Nature-based solutions (NbS) offer a new approach for flood management, with several co-benefits beyond the reduction of risks. This approach has gained recognition from policy makers in the region, but they are confronted with a number of challenges, including the lack of a clear, common definition and guidelines, as well as financing issues. The growing imperatives of climate adaptation call for complementary, innovative and forward-looking solutions, such as a combined approach incorporating both NbS and grey infrastructure.
  • 18-March-2024

    English

    Environmental domain tagging in the OECD PINE database

    This paper presents tagging methodologies for 22 environmental domains in the OECD Policy INstruments for the Environment (PINE) database, including seven domains on environmental protection (air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution, solid waste, ozone layer, noise and radiation), six domains on natural resource management (fisheries, forests, freshwater, renewable energy, fossil fuels and minerals) and nine cross-cutting domains (climate change mitigation, climate change adaptation, land degradation, biodiversity, ocean, chemicals management, energy efficiency, circular economy and mercury). The environmental domains in the PINE database support tracking progress towards domestic and international environmental objectives. Tagging environmental domains allows harmonised comparisons across countries, years and policy instrument types.
  • 15-March-2024

    English

    A Roadmap towards Circular Economy of Albania

    This roadmap aims to assist the Albanian government in establishing robust policy foundations for a successful circular economy transition. As an EU candidate country, Albania has committed to align with European climate objectives by endorsing the Sofia Declaration on the Green Agenda for the Western Balkans, with the circular economy transition being its key component. Recognising the prominent role of this transition in both national and regional development and proactively addressing the challenges posed by increasing climate change vulnerabilities, reliance on imported raw materials and increased waste, Albania is now poised for a strategic framework followed by concrete actions to embark on this transformative journey. Informed by a comprehensive diagnostic of Albania’s circular economy landscape, the roadmap strategically integrates existing policy initiatives, fostering synergies across sectors, measures and actors involved in this transformation. Highlighting three key areas where circular economy policies can have a significant impact in Albania – economic instruments, circular business models for SMEs and targeted solutions for plastics, with a focus on marine litter – the roadmap unveils 35 policy recommendations. These recommendations, supported by a monitoring framework, should serve as a cornerstone for propelling Albania towards a more sustainable and circular future.
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