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  • 28-February-2022

    English

    Constitutions in OECD Countries: A Comparative Study - Background Report in the Context of Chile’s Constitutional Process

    Chile has embarked on an ambitious path towards a new constitution. For all countries, drafting a new constitution or amending an existing one is a stimulating challenge, but also a demanding process from both a political and technical standpoint. This report presents the results of a benchmarking exercise conducted by the OECD of possible constitutional provisions, reflecting the experiences of OECD member countries. The components covered include economic and social rights, the system of government, multi-level governance, constitutional review, fiscal governance and the role and functioning of central banks.
  • 25-February-2022

    English

    Global warming, pollution and cognitive developments - The effects of high pollution and temperature levels on cognitive ability throughout the life course

    Global warming and air pollution threaten human health, economic prosperity and human capital accumulation. The current review presents empirical findings on the effect of adverse environmental conditions on cognition, with a focus on pollution and high temperatures. The review takes a life-course perspective and quantifies both the direct and indirect effects of cumulative and transitory exposure to adverse conditions on cognition starting in-utero all the way to exposure in old age. The review makes clear that exposure to pollutants and high temperatures has economically meaningful costs for both individuals and societies, stemming from lower human capital accumulation. Furthermore, the evidence presented indicates that adverse environmental conditions have large distributional consequences, leading to widening disparities in educational opportunities both across countries and across socio-economic groups within-countries. The review discusses the mechanisms underpinning these effects and explores policies that have the potential to mitigate the negative impact of adverse conditions on cognition.
  • 23-February-2022

    English

    Innovation and industrial policies for green hydrogen

    This paper examines the current development of hydrogen technology in the manufacturing sector and the industrial policies enacted to support it across countries. In addition to continued R&D efforts, governments can already lay the ground for the deployment of green hydrogen by implementing five types of policies: 1) supporting R&D and demonstration for green hydrogen to bring down the cost of electrolysers and make them competitive; 2) increasing the supply of renewable electricity; 3) reducing the cost gap between green hydrogen and brown technologies through a comprehensive policy package, such as carbon pricing and the phasing out of inefficient fossil fuel subsidies; 4) reducing uncertainty, for instance by promoting international standardisation, hydrogen infrastructure, and sound regulatory standards; and 5) considering blue hydrogen as a short-term option to facilitate the transition to green hydrogen.
  • 22-February-2022

    English

    Global Plastics Outlook - Economic Drivers, Environmental Impacts and Policy Options

    While plastics are extremely useful materials for modern society, plastics production and waste generation continue to increase with worsening environmental impacts despite international, national and local policy responses, as well as industry commitments. The urgent need to make the lifecycle of plastics more circular calls for an expansion of national policies and improved international co-operation to mitigate environmental impacts all along the value chain. The first of two reports, this Outlook intends to inform and support policy efforts to combat plastic leakage. The report quantifies the current production, use, disposal and key environmental impacts throughout the entire plastics lifecycle and identifies opportunities for reducing the negative externalities. It also investigates how plastics use and waste have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic across sectors and regions. The Outlook identifies four key levers for bending the plastics curve: stronger support for recycled (secondary) plastics markets; policies to boost technological innovation in plastics; more ambitious domestic policy measures; and greater international co-operation.
  • 22-février-2022

    Français

    La pollution plastique ne cesse de croître tandis que la gestion et le recyclage des déchets sont à la traîne, selon l’OCDE

    Le monde produit aujourd’hui deux fois plus de déchets plastiques qu’il y a vingt ans, et ils sont en grande partie mis en décharge, incinérés ou rejetés dans l’environnement, seuls 9 % étant effectivement recyclés, constate l’OCDE dans un nouveau rapport.

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  • 18-February-2022

    English

    Towards Green Transformation of the Republic of Moldova: State of Play in 2021

    This report presents a snapshot of the progress towards the green economy made in the Republic of Moldova over 2015-20, based on green growth indicators. The new released report will help prepare the new national program on the green economy for 2022-27 and Environmental Strategy 2030.

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  • 15-February-2022

    English

    The effect of climate policy on innovation and economic performance along the supply chain - A firm- and sector-level analysis

    The paper empirically assesses the effect of climate policy stringency on innovation and economic performance, both directly on regulated sectors and indirectly through supply chain relationships. The analysis is based on a combination of firm- and sector-level data, covering 19 countries and the period from 1990 to 2015. The paper shows that climate policies are effective at inducing innovation in low-carbon technologies in directly regulated sectors. It does not find evidence that climate policies induce significant innovation along the supply chain. In addition, there is no evidence that climate policies – through the channel of clean innovation – either harm or improve the economic performance of regulated firms. This supports the evidence that past climate policies have not been major burdens on firms’ competitiveness, and that clean innovation may enable firms to compensate for the potential costs implied by new environmental regulations.
  • 14-February-2022

    English

    Environment at a Glance Indicators

    This new web format for Environment at a Glance Indicators provides real-time interactive on-line access to the latest comparable OECD-country data on the environment from the OECD Core Set of Environmental Indicators – a tool to evaluate environmental performance in countries and to track the course towards sustainable development. The web version allows users to play with the data and graphics, download and share them, and consult and download thematic web-books. These indicators provide key messages on major environmental trends in areas such as climate change, biodiversity, water resources, air quality, circular economy and ocean resources. They are accompanied by a short Environment at a Glance report that presents a digest of the key messages stemming from the indicators.
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  • 9-February-2022

    English

    Lessons learnt and good practice from APEC-economy fossil-fuel subsidy peer reviews

    According to latest data from the OECD and the IEA, government support for the production and use of fossil fuels across 81 major economies totalled USD 351 billion in 2020, amounting to USD 183 billion across 50 OECD, G20, and Eastern Partnership economies. While the difficulty of reform is evident from the range and complexity of challenges confronting governments in the phasing-out of fossil-fuel subsidies, APEC economy-led fossil-fuel subsidy peer reviews play a key role in pointing out commonly faced challenges, and present options to tackle them more effectively. This report is the first comprehensive attempt to document 'scalable' lessons and examples of good practice emerging from fossil-fuel subsidy peer reviews: taking stock of progress in their phase-out as reflected in the peer review reports, considering the role of the peer review process in promoting reform, and proposing potential ways to enhance the process. Eleven peer reviews are documented, seven of which were chaired by the OECD and four in which the IEA was a member of the review panel. Six of these peer reviews were conducted under the auspices of the G20, and four under APEC auspices, with the addition of the OECD-IEA review of the Netherlands, modelled on the G20 review process. The economies reviewed inventoried between three to thirty-nine measures, of an average self-declared value of USD 13 billion, for those reviews which quantified fossil fuel support measures. The 'scalable' lessons drawn from the peer reviews can be used to further spur progress towards rationalising and phasing out fossil-fuel subsidies, thanks to the insights on the approaches and good practices for designing the reform process. These insights include the need to accommodate for differing contexts, objectives and definitions; to prioritise inter-ministerial co-ordination; to promote active government and stakeholder participation; and to engage a cross-sectional peer review panel.
  • 13-January-2022

    English

    Fostering Water Resilience in Brazil - Turning Strategy into Action

    Brazil made significant progress in managing water resources since the adoption of the National Water Law in 1997 and the creation of the National Water and Sanitation Agency (ANA) in 2000. Nevertheless, water security challenges persist and will be aggravated by megatrends such as climate change, population growth, urbanisation, and the economic, social and environmental consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. The report calls for a modern approach to water security, balancing supply and demand management, grey and green infrastructure, and risk management and resilience while embracing a holistic view that connects water to other strategic areas such as environment, land use and territorial development. The report builds on a decade of policy dialogue between the OECD and the National Water and Sanitation Agency (ANA) of Brazil. It provides an action plan to support the country to: (1) shift from a risk-based approach to a resilience approach to understand vulnerabilities and minimise the duration and magnitude of failures; (2) make river basin organisations deliver and use economic instruments to tackle water risks; and (3) accompany infrastructure development with regulatory oversight and monitoring.
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