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  • 22-mars-2022

    Français

    Gérer les risques climatiques et faire face aux pertes et aux dommages

    Ce rapport aborde la question urgente des pertes et dommages liés au climat. Le changement climatique provoque de profonds bouleversements planétaires ayant des effets néfastes sur le bien-être des populations et leurs moyens de subsistance, et menace les avancées réalisées en termes de développement. L’ampleur et la portée des risques futurs encourus à un endroit donné font cependant l’objet d’incertitudes liées à la prédiction de la dynamique complexe du climat, ainsi qu’à l’impact des décisions individuelles et collectives qui déterminent les émissions futures de gaz à effet de serre, les tendances du développement socioéconomique et l’inégalité. Le rapport étudie la question des pertes et dommages liés au climat du point de vue de la gestion des risques. Il examine comment le changement climatique se manifestera dans différentes régions du monde et au fil du temps, en s’intéressant à trois types de dangers : les changements évoluant lentement comme la montée du niveau de la mer; les phénomènes climatiques extrêmes comme les vagues de chaleur, les fortes précipitations et les sécheresses; enfin, les éventuelles modifications non linéaires de grande ampleur dans le système climatique lui-même. Le rapport étudie les approches pour réduire et gérer les risques en mettant l’accent sur l’action des pouvoirs publics, les dispositifs financiers et l’utilité de la technologie dans l’efficacité des processus de gestion des risques. S’appuyant sur les expériences menées dans le monde entier – en particulier dans les pays les moins avancés et les petits États insulaires en développement –, ce rapport met en lumière un certain nombre de bonnes pratiques et indique des marches à suivre.
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  • 22-March-2022

    English

    Enabling Conditions for Bioenergy Finance and Investment in Colombia

    To realise Colombia’s clean energy ambitions and enable the necessary mobilisation of finance and investment, the government has set forth a number of important policy strategies, including the 2018 Green Growth Policy, the 2019 National Circular Economy Strategy and the forthcoming 2022 Energy Transition Policy. These high-level policies all note the role clean energy solutions like sustainable bioenergy and waste-to-energy can play in supporting decarbonisation objectives. These solutions can also achieve a number of other socioeconomic ambitions, including improved reliability of energy supply, improved access to affordable and reliable energy in areas that are not connected to the national electricity grid, and reduced amounts of waste going to capacity-limited landfills. This report aims to support Colombia’s renewable energy ambitions, focusing on current clean energy trends, opportunities for bioenergy and measures that can increase finance and investment in those solutions. Through five case studies from Brazil, Chile, Colombia, India and Turkey, the report also considers the enabling environment and lessons learnt from bioenergy developments in different countries.
  • 21-mars-2022

    Français

    Les examens environnementaux à paraître

    Les Examens environnementaux représentent un processus de recherches et d'analyses très complètes, afin d'aider les gouvernements à améliorer les politiques qui ont un impact sur l'environnement. Les présentations et brochures présentent les étapes-clés du processus, pour chaque examen à venir.

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  • 17-March-2022

    English

    Dangerous Fakes - Trade in Counterfeit Goods that Pose Health, Safety and Environmental Risks

    Illicit trade in counterfeit goods causes economic damage by reducing sales and profits as well as innovation incentives in legitimate industries. At the same time, some counterfeits can be of low quality and create significant additional risks, including health risks (fake pharmaceuticals or food products), safety risks (counterfeit automotive spare parts, fake batteries) and environmental risks (fake chemicals or pesticides). This study presents detailed information on the value of counterfeit trade in such dangerous fake goods, analyses changes in the volumes and composition of the goods, and maps key trade routes. The evidence in this report can be used to raise awareness of the risks of this trade and its implications for health and environmental policy.
  • 11-March-2022

    English

    Web platform on Green Growth Indicators in the Republic of Moldova

    A digital platform to monitor the progress of the Republic of Moldova towards a green economy, based on green growth indicators, was developed and now hosted on the website of the Ministry of Environment. This is the first kind of web portal in the Eastern Partnership region.

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  • 11-March-2022

    English

    The environmental compliance assurance system in Armenia: Current situation and recommendations

    This report takes stock of the state of the environmental compliance assurance system in Armenia, including its legal and institutional framework, monitoring, enforcement and compliance promotion activities. Based on this assessment, it identifies gaps and provides recommendations for improvement.

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  • 10-March-2022

    English

    Carbon pricing and COVID-19 - Policy changes, challenges and design options in OECD and G20 countries

    This paper assesses the role of carbon pricing in a sustainable recovery from COVID-19. It tracks the policy changes in carbon pricing within OECD and G20 countries between January 2020 and August 2021 of the COVID-19 pandemic. Carbon pricing as defined here includes emissions trading schemes, fossil fuel support and carbon, fuel excise or aviation taxes. The paper also highlights the need for the recovery to be sustainable and discusses the advantages, limitations and uses of carbon pricing therein. In addition, it describes additional challenges to as well as increased rationale for carbon pricing in the pandemic. It provides evidence on the effects of carbon pricing on the challenges and discusses carbon pricing design elements to help overcome those challenges. The paper concludes that there were more policy changes with an expected negative impact on climate. However, it is likely that the impact of the climate-positive changes – which are broader in coverage and scope - will outweigh the climate-negative changes.
  • 8-March-2022

    English

    CO2 Emissions from air transport - A near-real-time global database for policy analysis

    By moving goods and people over large distances, air transport facilitates international trade and tourism and thus contributes to economic growth and job creation. At the same time, it also comes with environmental challenges, largely related to air emissions and their impact on global warming. Air transport has been disproportionately negatively affected by the COVID-19 pandemic with associated reductions in air emissions. However, recent projections show that, in the absence of accelerated technological developments and more ambitious policy measures, aviation-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions will grow again at a rapid pace after the pandemic. This paper describes a new OECD database providing near-real-time and global information on aviation-related CO2 emissions, with allocations across countries following either the territory or the residence principle. This database provides a public good for both statistical measurement and environmental policy analysis. On the statistical front, it will facilitate the compilation of global Air Emission Accounts according to the System of Environmental Economic Accounting (SEEA), bring granular and timely information on a significant source of CO2 emissions, and allow tracking their evolution during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The comparison with official statistics that are available with a significant delay and at lower frequency demonstrates the accuracy of the OECD estimates. On the environmental policy front, it is expected that the OECD database will help monitor the impact of technological developments and policy measures to curb aviation-related CO2 emissions in the future.
  • 4-March-2022

    English

    Financing a Water Secure Future

    This report presents a summary of the key challenges and opportunities related to financing that contributes to water security and sustainable growth distilling insights from the Roundtable on Financing Water and related analyses. It covers a broad range of water-related investments, including water and sanitation services, water resources management, agricultural water and managing water-related risks ('too much', 'too little' and 'too polluted'). It summarises findings from analysis of investments needs and financing capacities, trends in development finance for water and explores how water risks generate financial impacts for corporates. The report highlights options to address the financing challenge by strengthening the enabling environment for investment, making the best use of existing sources of finance, strategic investment planning and mobilising additional finance via a range of financing approaches. Finally, the report sets out a vision for future OECD work on financing water and for the Roundtable on Financing Water.
  • 4-March-2022

    English

    The cost of preventing ocean plastic pollution

    This paper provides estimates of the cost of preventing land-based plastic leakage into the ocean, covering 38 OECD member countries and 10 selected major plastic waste emitters in Asia and Africa. The study estimates capital costs at EUR 54 billion in the Moderate Ambition scenario and EUR 74 billion in the High Ambition scenario. The annualised per-capita costs range between EUR 0.2 to 6.5 in the Moderate Ambition scenario and from EUR 0.8 to 6.5 in the High Ambition scenario. These cost estimates are much lower than UNEP and ISWA estimates of the cost of inaction of inadequate waste management, roughly USD 9 to 45 per capita. Differences in estimated costs are found to depend on countries’ waste policy stringency and waste management infrastructure. This paper contributes to OECD work in support of a sustainable ocean economy and the Global Plastics Outlook report.
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