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  • 20-October-2021

    English

    Policies to Reduce Microplastics Pollution in Water - Focus on Textiles and Tyres

    Microplastics are ubiquitous in the natural environment. This report synthesises the current state of knowledge on the sources, fate and risks of microplastics pollution. It then focuses on two sources of microplastics pollution, textile products and vehicle tyres, due to their substantial contribution to global microplastics emissions and currently largely absent policy frameworks to mitigate them. Several best practices and technological solutions can be implemented along the lifecycle of textile products and vehicle tyres to mitigate releases to the environment. The report proposes policy insights on measures and strategies that could help minimise microplastics emitted unintentionally from products and their potential impacts on human health and ecosystems.
  • 15-October-2021

    English

    Adverse Outcome Pathway on histone deacetylase inhibition leading to testicular atrophy

    The present AOP describes inhibition of histone deacetylase resulting in testicular atrophy. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) are approved as anti-cancer drugs since HDIs have apoptotic effects in cancer cells. The intracellular mechanisms of induction of the spermatocyte apoptosis by HDIs are suggested as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition as MIE, histone acetylation increase, disrupted cell cycle, apoptosis, and spermatocyte depletion as KEs. The adverse outcome has been defined as testicular atrophy. The HDIs inhibit deacetylation of the histone, leading to an increase in histone acetylation. The apoptosis induced by disrupted cell cycle leads to spermatocyte depletion and testis atrophy. Testicular toxicity is of interest for human health risk assessment especially in terms of reproductive and developmental toxicity, however, the testicular toxicity has not been fully elucidated. This AOP may be one of the pathways induced by HDIs, which suggests the pathway networks of protein hyperacetylations.
  • 15-October-2021

    English

    Adverse Outcome Pathway on inhibition of calcineurin activity leading to impaired T-cell dependent antibody response

    The present AOP describes the inhibition of calcineurin activity resulting in impaired T-Cell Dependent Antibody Response (TDAR). Calcineurin (CN), a protein phosphatase, is known to impair immune function when its phosphatase activation is inhibited. CN inhibitors (CNIs) inhibit CN phosphatase activity to suppress many kinds of immune functions and have been used in the medical domain to prevent hyper immune reactions. However, CNIs are reported to also induce immunosuppression-derived adverse effects such as increased frequency and/or severity of infections and increased tumor incidences. CNIs might affect several T-cell derived immune functions to induce compromised host. Among the affected immune functions, T-cell dependent antibody response (TDAR) is an important factor to resist infections and thought to be the useful endpoint on evaluating immunotoxicity of chemicals; therefore, this AOP describes the linkage between the inhibition of CN activity and impairment of TDAR.
  • 15-October-2021

    English

    Policies for a Carbon-Neutral Industry in the Netherlands

    This report presents a comprehensive assessment of the policy instruments adopted by the Netherlands to reach carbon neutrality in its manufacturing sector by 2050. The analysis illustrates the strength of combining a strong commitment to raising carbon prices with ambitious technology support, uncovers the pervasiveness of competitiveness provisions, and highlights the trade-off between short-term emissions cuts and longer-term technology shift. The Netherlands’ carbon levy sets an ambitious price trajectory to 2030, but is tempered by extensive preferential treatment to energy-intensive users, yielding a highly unequal carbon price across firms and sectors. The country’s technology support focuses on the cost-effective deployment of low-carbon options, which ensures least-cost decarbonisation in the short run but favours relatively mature technologies. The report offers recommendations for policy adjustments to reach the country’s carbon neutrality objective, including the gradual removal of exemptions, enhanced support for emerging technologies and greater visibility over future infrastructure plans.
  • 15-October-2021

    English

    Adverse Outcome Pathway on Cyp2E1 activation leading to liver cancer

    The present AOP describes the prolonged activation of Cyp2E1 resulting in liver cancer. Cyp2E1 is a cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase that bioactivates over 85 substrates, thereby creating electrophilic metabolites and oxidative stress. Mono-oxygenation of these substrates to their reactive metabolites, and the accompanying oxidative stress produced during metabolism, pose health risks because they lead to hepatotoxicity and, often, to liver cancer. The MIE occurs when Cyp2E1 binds a substrate. The Cyp2E1 catalytic cycle is prone to decoupling, which produces oxidative stress (KE1), and mono-oxidation of substrates produces reactive metabolites. Both reactive oxygen species and metabolites cause cytotoxicity (KE2). However, following injury, the liver is able to regenerate itself through an increase in cellular proliferation (KE3). Under conditions of chronic activation of Cyp2E1, excessive chronic increases in levels of reactive oxygen species and cell death, and subsequent dysregulated cellular proliferation, leads to tumour formation (AO).
  • 12-octobre-2021

    Français

    Égalité femmes-hommes et environnement - Accumuler des connaissances et des politiques pour atteindre les ODD

    Les objectifs en matière d’égalité femmes-hommes et d’environnement se renforcent mutuellement, avec des progrès lents sur les actions environnementales affectant la réalisation de l'égalité femmes-hommes, et vice versa. Les progrès vers les objectifs de développement durable (ODD) nécessite des actions ciblées et cohérentes. Cependant, les complémentarités et les compromis entre l'égalité femmes-hommes et la durabilité environnementale sont à peine documentés dans le cadre des ODD. Basé sur le cadre des ODD, ce rapport propose une vue d’ensemble de ces liens, en examinant les déficits de données et d'éléments factuels, les bénéfices économiques et de bien-être, ainsi que les aspects de gouvernance et de justice. Il examine neuf ODD liés à l'environnement (2, 6, 7, 9, 11, 12 et 15) à travers un prisme genre-environnement, en utilisant des données disponibles, des études de cas, des enquêtes et d'autres éléments. Il démontre que les femmes partout dans le monde sont affectées de manière disproportionnée par le changement climatique, la déforestation, la dégradation des terres, la désertification, la raréfaction de l'eau et l'insuffisance de l'assainissement. Ces inégalités entre femmes et hommes ont été encore exacerbées par le COVID-19. Le rapport conclut qu’une approche sexospécifique des domaines clés comme d’utilisation des terres, de gestion de l'eau, de l'énergie et des transports, entre autres, permettrait la promotion d’un développement économique plus durable et plus inclusif, et d’accroître le bien-être pour tous. Reconnaissant les multiples dimensions et interactions entre l'égalité femmes-hommes et l'environnement, il propose un cadre d'action intégré, tenant compte à la fois de la croissance inclusive et des considérations environnementales aux niveaux local, national et international.
  • 11-octobre-2021

    Français

    Contenu en émissions de dioxyde de carbone des échanges internationaux

    Le contenu en émissions de dioxyde de carbone est calculé à partir des tableaux internationaux des entrées-sorties de l'OCDE, des bases de données sur les échanges bilatéraux des biens et des services ainsi que des données de l'Agence Internationale pour l'Énergie.

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  • 8-October-2021

    English

    Methodology for estimation of Energy Physical Supply and Use Tables based on IEA's World Energy Balances

    This paper develops a methodology for the estimation of Energy Physical Supply and Use Tables (E-PSUTs) based on the IEA’s World Energy Balances (WEB). The tables are similar to those proposed by the United Nations System of Environmental Economic Accounting. However, they fully exploit, and are consistent, with the information on fuel transformation processes available in the WEB. The E-PSUTs can be used to derive energy indicators in physical units. Additionally, they can be used in a hybrid methodological approach to link global energy production and consumption in physical units with global production and consumption in monetary units, allowing the development of indicators to better understand the multiple links between energy and the economy, contributing to climate change discussions. Furthermore, complementary analyses can be undertaken by linking the MF-IO model with variables such as industry value added and employment data. And, used to estimate energy-related CO2 emissions indicators.
  • 29-September-2021

    English

    Assessment of a social discount rate and financial hurdle rates for energy system modelling in Viet Nam

    Viet Nam’s sustained economic development is driving increasing demand for electricity with generation capacity predicted to nearly double over the next decade. With the majority of economic hydropower resources utilised, delays in coal power pipelines, and increasing energy insecurity, Viet Nam has pivoted its electricity sector development plans to further prioritize the deployment of wind and solar generation. A clean energy transition such as this can deliver multiple social and economic benefits related to cost reductions, improved energy security, and public health. This working paper was prepared to support least-cost energy sector planning in Viet Nam particularly for the upcoming Viet Nam Energy Outlook 2021 (VEO21) being prepared in partnership between Viet Nam’s Ministry of Industry and Trade (MOIT) and the Danish Energy Agency (DEA). This working paper discusses the use of discounting in energy models and the potential impact discount rate selection may have on a model’s cost-optimised technology selections. The paper also analyses the clean energy finance environment in Viet Nam to identify opportunities for policy levers to reduce the prevailing cost of capital and how these cost implications can be tested in the VEO21 modelling exercise. The main outputs of this working paper are two sets of model inputs, an estimate for an appropriate social discount rate and secondly a set of high and low financial hurdle rates for renewable energy technologies for use in sensitivity or scenario analysis.
  • 27-septembre-2021

    Français

    La Lituanie, efficace dans le domaine des énergies renouvelables et du recyclage, doit faire mieux en matière de transports, d'agriculture et de réduction des émissions, indique l’OCDE

    La Lituanie a considérablement développé l’utilisation des énergies renouvelables et le recours au recyclage des déchets mais elle doit mieux gérer les impacts environnementaux des transports et de l’agriculture.

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