By Date

  • 1-March-2023


    How the green and digital transitions are reshaping the automotive ecosystem

    The automotive sector is important across OECD countries in terms of value-added and R&D, but is also heavily affected by the green and the digital transformations. This paper offers a novel and holistic view of the automotive sector and its surrounding ecosystem based on a combination of Inter-Country Input-Output (ICIO) tables, patent data, mergers and acquisitions (M&A) transactions, cross-country micro-distributed data and firm-level balance sheet data. It identifies the boundaries of this industrial ecosystem including connected sectors (e.g. upstream and downstream) as well as knowledge and technology providers (e.g. universities or the digital industry). The paper documents emerging trends at the geographical and technological levels and provides a comprehensive assessment of the ecosystem’s changing microstructure, with a growing role of young and digital-intensive companies. Finally, it provides recommendations for effective public policies to support the automotive ecosystem, with a focus on innovation, competition and the growth of young firms.
  • 1-March-2023


    Driving low-carbon innovations for climate neutrality

    The transition to climate neutrality requires cost reductions in existing clean technologies to enable rapid deployment on a large scale, as well as the development of emerging technologies such as green hydrogen. This policy paper argues that science, technology, innovation, and industrial (STI&I) policies focusing on developing and deploying low-carbon technologies are crucial to achieving carbon neutrality. It notes however that the current level of innovation is insufficient to meet the net-zero challenge due to a policy emphasis on deployment rather than research and development (R&D) support. The paper explores the rationale for more ambitious STI&I policies targeted at R&D for climate neutrality and provides policy recommendations for an effective innovation policy for net-zero, including its interaction with the broader climate policy package.
  • 22-February-2023


    The economic benefits of early green innovation - Evidence from the automotive sector

    The economic consequences for firms investing in green innovation, and therefore their incentives to innovate, are not well understood. This paper empirically assesses the economic returns on innovation in cleaner vehicles. The analysis uses data on passenger car market shares and patents for car manufacturers operating in eight countries for the period 2005-2021. The results show that, when vehicle fuel prices increase, firms having previously successfully filed patents related to both electric and hybrid vehicles and fuel efficiency experience an increase in their market share. This increase takes place between 7 and 8 years after the patent stock is accumulated for patents related to electric and hybrid vehicles and between 8 and 15 years for patents related to fuel efficiency. The analysis also finds that in contexts where fuel price salience is high, price increases generate larger and earlier competitiveness returns for firms having previously invested in cleaner technologies.
  • 16-February-2023


    Monitoring Uzbekistan’s Progress towards Green Economy using the OECD Green Growth Indicators framework

    The meeting aims to launch the work in Uzbekistan to improve monitoring progress towards green economy using the green growth indicators framework.

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  • 10-février-2023


    L’OCDE lance un nouveau forum pour aider à optimiser la réduction des émissions à l’échelle du globe grâce au partage de données, à l’apprentissage mutuel et au dialogue

    Au cours des deux derniers jours, 607 hauts responsables de l’administration et délégués représentant 103 pays et territoires et 9 organisations, dont des organisations internationales, ont examiné les moyens d’augmenter l’effort de réduction des émissions à l’échelle mondiale à l’occasion de la réunion inaugurale du Forum inclusif sur les approches d’atténuation des émissions de carbone (Forum inclusif).

    Documents connexes
  • 7-February-2023


    Driving Down Coal Mine Methane Emissions - A Regulatory Roadmap and Toolkit

    Tackling methane in the coal sector is a major opportunity for climate action that can also strengthen energy security. Experience shows that there are several steps countries can take today – using existing technologies and tools – that can lead to significant reductions in methane emissions from coal mining. This report highlights the lessons learned in different coal-producing jurisdictions to support the development of smart and effective methane regulation. It then provides detailed guidance on the process of designing, drafting and implementing new regulations. Finally, it discusses the different regulatory approaches currently in use for methane, with the aim of providing a comprehensive toolkit for policy makers.
  • 30-January-2023


    Trade policies to promote the circular economy - A case study of lithium-ion batteries

    Affordable and sustainable lithium-ion batteries are key to the development of electric vehicles markets and to the green energy transition. Circular economy solutions for end-of-life batteries can help address primary inputs disruptions, while reducing environmental costs associated with the mining of these inputs or with battery production. Circular value chains would also help address waste and disposal problems as Li-ion batteries reach end of life. These chains are in their infancy, as complex battery designs, material chemistries and insufficient waste stocks hamper their viability, but the projected growth should support profitability. International trade in Li-ion batteries waste will remain essential in markets where domestic waste streams are insufficient to achieve the scale necessary for economically viable recycling, or where inadequate infrastructure imposes reliance on recycling capacities abroad. Promoting circular value chains for Li-ion batteries would require greater clarity on the status of these batteries as waste, consistency of transport and storage safety regulations, trade facilitation and harmonisation of standards for battery design, and regulatory targets for waste collection and recycling rates, coupled with stewardship and take-back schemes.
  • 30-January-2023


    Who pays for higher carbon prices? - Illustration for Lithuania and a research agenda

    This paper lays out an approach, and a research agenda, for assessing the impact of carbon pricing on household budgets. It relies on a rich set of available data and policy models and combines them in a way that is informative for mapping the gains and losses at the household level in the short term as countries transition to a low-carbon economy. After accounting for direct burdens from higher fuel prices, indirect effects from higher prices of goods other than fuel, and households’ behavioural responses, overall burdens are only mildly regressive. Recycling carbon-tax revenues back to households allows considerable scope for avoiding or cushioning losses for large parts of the population, and existing policy models can be used to design compensation measures that facilitate majority support for carbon tax packages.
  • 21-December-2022


    Delivering Climate-Change Mitigation under Diverse National Policy Approaches - An independent IMF/OECD report to support the German 2022 G7 Presidency

    In spite of progress made to date and the significant long-term ambition announced by many countries, climate policy actions remain insufficient to meet the Paris Agreement objectives. While several international initiatives aim to track and monitor climate policies, there is not yet a 'go to' place for a comprehensive inventory of policy actions and best practices worldwide. Such a platform would also ideally serve to compare policies’ effectiveness reflecting the diversity of country circumstances. Progress in this direction would help to promote an ambitious but globally more coherent and better-coordinated approach to emission reductions through a broad range of policies. This report lays out a roadmap for data and analytical work to support this aim, with a view to enhancing global dialogue and building trust on issues spanning climate change mitigation policies and their macro-economic repercussions. Key elements to strengthen the assessment and comparison of countries’ climate change mitigation policies across countries include: broadening and deepening the stocktaking of mitigation policies; extending and agreeing on an operational methodology for estimating the impact of these policies on emissions and on potential metrics to compare them; and assessing the broader economic effects of different climate policies.
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