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  • 8-December-2022

    English

    Building Financial Resilience to Climate Impacts - A Framework for Governments to Manage the Risks of Losses and Damages

    Governments are facing significant climate-related risks from the expected increase in frequency and intensity of cyclones, floods, fires, and other climate-related extreme events. The report Building Financial Resilience to Climate Impacts: A Framework for Governments to Manage the Risks of Losses and Damages provides a strategic framework to help governments, particularly those in emerging market and developing economies, strengthen their capacity to manage the financial implications of climate-related risks. The goal of the framework is to support sound public financial management strategies that take into account budgetary and financing constraints, and to foster broader actions at the national and international levels. The report examines the role of governments in identifying and assessing climate-related physical risks and their impacts on public finances, and reporting climate-related fiscal risks to promote transparency in public financial management. It discusses how to mitigate those risks through protecting households and businesses, and developing integrated multipronged financial strategies to fund government expenditure needs. Finally, it calls for promoting integrated strategies to strengthen financial resilience at the country and regional levels, and for mobilising development co-operation to strengthen global climate financial resilience.
  • 5-December-2022

    English

    Regional seminar on better environmental inspections for stronger environmental resilience

    The regional seminar will present and discuss findings of a draft OECD assessment report of the environmental compliance assurance system of Georgia and facilitate an information exchange on the latest developments in environmental inspections, available guidance and tools, and lessons learnt.

    Related Documents
  • 5-December-2022

    English

    Biodiversity and development finance - Main trends, 2011-20

    This paper provides an overview of the main trends in development finance with biodiversity-related objectives for the period 2011 to 2020, using available OECD statistical data, from various sources. The resources covered are: Official Development Assistance and non-concessional development finance, both bilateral and multilateral, from members of the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) as well as non-members, including South-South and Triangular Co-operation; private finance mobilised by public interventions; and private philanthropy. In addition, this paper assesses financing provided by bilateral DAC members that are Parties to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity, looking at how they fared collectively against the Aichi Target 20 on development finance. The paper was prepared by the DAC ENVIRONET Secretariat, with inputs from the OECD Environment Directorate, and with guidance from a group of DAC members.
  • 2-December-2022

    English

    Environmental impact of digital assets - Crypto-asset mining and distributed ledger technology consensus mechanisms

    Crypto-asset markets are rapidly developing and reached USD 3tn in late 2021, yet the infrastructure supporting mainstream crypto-assets, such as the Bitcoin, use an enormous amount of energy. This paper explores the growing environmental impact of crypto-assets due to increasing institutional and retail investors participation in these markets. The use of energy-intensive transaction validation through Proof-of-Work consensus mechanisms and the corresponding carbon footprint create climate transition risks for market participants. Policy considerations and action are necessary given the carbon footprint and associated climate transition risks of certain digital assets when combined with negative externalities extending to the wider society.
  • 2-December-2022

    English

    Climate Tipping Points - Insights for Effective Policy Action

    This report reviews evidence that overshooting 1.5°C may push the earth over several tipping points, leading to irreversible and severe changes in the climate system. If triggered, tipping point impacts will rapidly cascade through socio-economic and ecological systems, leading to severe effects on human and natural systems and imposing important challenges for human adaptation. Of particular concern are the likely collapse of the West Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets and the abrupt melting of permafrost grounds in the Arctic, which would result in additional sea-level rise and greenhouse gas releases, leading to more warming. Based on the most recent science and consultations with renowned experts, Climate Tipping Points: Insights for Effective Policy Action argues that it is no longer appropriate to consider the risk of crossing tipping points as low-probability. Overshooting 1.5°C may likely lead to irreversible and severe impacts, which must be avoided, heightening the urgency to drastically reduce emissions within this decade. The report calls for a shift in how tipping points are treated in climate policy today and provides recommendations on how climate risk management strategies can better reflect the risks of tipping points in the areas of mitigation, adaptation and technological innovation.
  • 28-November-2022

    English

    The role of development co-operation in tackling plastic pollution - Key trends, instruments, and opportunities to scale up action

    Plastics leakage has become a pressing issue for many developing countries. While a number of development co-operation initiatives with a focus on tackling plastic pollution have recently emerged, there is currently no comprehensive assessment of the volume and scope of international development co-operation in this area. This report contributes to fill this gap by bringing together OECD’s unique statistical sources and expertise. First, this paper assesses the scale of the plastic pollution problem in developing countries by providing evidence on developing countries’ plastic use, waste, and leakage volumes, and assessing the specificity of plastics-related impacts in developing countries. Secondly, it quantifies development co-operation support in this area through a refined methodology developed as part of the OECD Sustainable Ocean for All Initiative. Finally, the paper presents innovative development co-operation approaches that are helping developing countries to scale up financing and impact of waste management projects.
  • 24-November-2022

    English

    Climate Change: OECD DAC External Development Finance Statistics

    The OECD DAC measures and monitors development finance targeting climate change objectives using two Rio markers: Climate Change Mitigation and Climate Change Adaptation.

  • 22-November-2022

    English

    Identifying and assessing subsidies and other incentives harmful to biodiversity - A comparative review of existing national-level assessments and insights for good practice

    Despite calls for the reform of incentives, including subsidies, harmful to biodiversity, including under the Convention on Biological Diversity and its 2011-2020 Aichi Targets, very few countries to date have undertaken what is considered the first step in this process, namely, to identify and assess the types and magnitudes of any incentives in place at the national level which are harmful for biodiversity or the environment more broadly. This paper begins with a brief literature review on subsidies harmful to biodiversity, followed by a detailed review and comparison of the existing national level studies to identify and assess subsidies and other incentives harmful to biodiversity or the environment. The report concludes with guidance and good practice insights to identify and assess subsidies and other incentives harmful to biodiversity, at national level.
  • 16-November-2022

    English

    Intermediary Cities and Climate Change - An Opportunity for Sustainable Development

    The consequences of climate change in developing countries are worsening fast: many ecosystems will shortly reach points of irreversible damage, and socio-economic costs will continue to rise. To alleviate the future impacts on populations and economies, policy makers are looking for the spaces where they can make the greatest difference. This report argues that intermediary cities in developing countries are such spaces. Indeed, in the context of fast population growth and urbanisation, these small and medium-sized cities silently play an essential role in the rapid transformation of human settlements, not least by supporting the massive flows of population, goods and services between rural and metropolitan areas. Most of those intermediary cities are still growing: now is therefore the time to influence their dynamics, and thereby the entire design of urbanisation in those regions, in ways that limit the exposure of urban dwellers to climate shocks and avoid carbon lock-in. To that end, based on fresh evidence and policy analysis on the challenges faced by these agglomerations in the context of climate change, the report makes the case for new development approaches to avoid the unsustainable paths followed by too many cities in the recent past.
  • 15-November-2022

    English

    OECD Regions and Cities at a Glance 2022

    OECD Regions and Cities at a Glance presents indicators on individual regions and cities since the turn of the new millennium. It provides a comprehensive picture of past successes and likely challenges that regions and cities in OECD members and partner countries will face in their efforts to build stronger, more sustainable and more resilient economies. By relying on a combination of traditional and more innovative data sources, OECD Regions and Cities at a Glance describes the evolving nature of spatial disparities within countries from a multidimensional perspective. New topics covered by this edition include the economic impact of recent shocks, such as the pandemic and the energy crisis, housing affordability, climate change and digitalisation.
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