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  • 20-décembre-2021

    Français

    Gérer les risques climatiques et faire face aux pertes et aux dommages

    Ce rapport aborde la question urgente des pertes et dommages liés au climat. Le changement climatique provoque de profonds bouleversements planétaires ayant des effets néfastes sur le bien-être des populations et leurs moyens de subsistance, et menace les avancées réalisées en termes de développement. L’ampleur et la portée des risques futurs encourus à un endroit donné font cependant l’objet d’incertitudes liées à la prédiction de la dynamique complexe du climat, ainsi qu’à l'impact des décisions individuelles et collectives qui déterminent les émissions futures de gaz à effet de serre, les tendances du développement socioéconomique et l’inégalité. Le rapport étudie la question des pertes et dommages liés au climat du point de vue de la gestion des risques. Il examine comment le changement climatique se manifestera dans différentes régions du monde et au fil du temps, en s'intéressant à trois types de dangers : les changements évoluant lentement comme la montée du niveau de la mer ; les phénomènes climatiques extrêmes comme les vagues de chaleur, les fortes précipitations et les sécheresses ; enfin, les éventuelles modifications non linéaires de grande ampleur dans le système climatique lui-même. Le rapport étudie les approches pour réduire et gérer les risques en mettant l’accent sur l’action des pouvoirs publics, les dispositifs financiers et l’utilité de la technologie dans l’efficacité des processus de gestion des risques. S'appuyant sur les expériences menées dans le monde entier – en particulier dans les pays les moins avancés et les petits États insulaires en développement –, ce rapport met en lumière un certain nombre de bonnes pratiques et indique des marches à suivre.
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  • 13-December-2021

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Finland 2021

    Finland has a strong reputation as a leader in environmental policy and sustainable development. It committed to become carbon neutral by 2035 and to pioneer the world’s first circular economy. However, it is not fully on track to meet its ambitious goals. Greenhouse gas emissions fell in the last decade, but they need to decline at a much faster pace to meet the target. Waste generation, material consumption and nutrient losses to water bodies have continued to rise. Agriculture and a large forestry sector exert pressures on the country’s biodiversity. Targeted policy measures are needed to provide adequate incentives, boost investment and innovation and steer the economic recovery from the COVID-19 crisis towards the green transition. Finland should move from good strategy making to effective and coherent implementation. It needs to get the right policies in place, to secure sufficient resources and ensure continued and broad public consensus. This is the third Environmental Performance Review of Finland. It evaluates progress towards green growth and sustainable development, with a special chapter focusing on climate change mitigation and well-being.
  • 2-December-2021

    English

    Climate mitigation co-benefits from sustainable nutrient management in agriculture - Incentives and opportunities

    Nitrogen management policies introduced in the past decades by some OECD countries have succeeded in reducing excess nitrogen use by farmers, but half of global mineral fertiliser use is still lost for crops. While about half of OECD countries have nutrient surpluses of between 25-50 kg N per hectare, a smaller number of countries are still having surpluses of more than 100 kg N per hectare. Since the production and use of mineral fertilisers have a large greenhouse gas footprint and to achieve the deep reductions in emissions as the Paris Agreement aims for, nitrogen management policies could be reinforced and pursued more systematically. The paper identifies significant reduction potential by eliminating the excess use of nitrogen fertilisers and improving efficiency in the use of manure-nitrogen, which could be obtained with a redesign of nitrogen management policies and schemes for public financial support. To underpin such measures a tax on the nitrogen surplus at farm level could play a vital role. Based on the available estimates of environmental externalities of nitrogen, the paper identifies an average rate of EUR 1-2 as a suitable starting point for a tax or penalty on the surplus application of nitrogen. The paper also explores the opportunities for sustainable nutrient management in agriculture with climate mitigation benefits relating to nitrous oxides in particular.
  • 1-December-2021

    English

    Conducting economic valuation surveys during extreme events

    There is no guidance on how to deal with the effects of catastrophic events, like the COVID-19 pandemic, on stated preference survey responses, despite the possible impact such events can have on stated values and survey responses. This paper provides a concise analysis of the likely effects of extreme events on stated preference surveys, focusing on the validity and temporal stability of estimated values, and offers a set of recommendations. These recommendations can also be of use for designing other types of household and individual surveys, beyond economic valuation surveys.
  • 30-November-2021

    English

    Think green - Education and climate change

    On a daily basis, a deluge of academic studies, reports and news tell us that the Earth’s ecosystem is in danger. They further warn that we need more than just information to address the climate crisis, protect the environment, and promote a sustainable way of living. We need action. Education plays a pivotal role in raising awareness and sensitivity about the environment. It must provide the foundational knowledge and skills to identify and resolve environmental challenges, and shape attitudes and behaviours that lead to both individual and collective action.
  • 30-November-2021

    English

    A global analysis of the cost-efficiency of forest carbon sequestration

    This paper proposes a ranking of the countries where forest carbon sequestration is the most cost-efficient among 166 countries for which data are available. Taking into account the main cost factors leads to a more nuanced ranking of the countries to be favoured for cost-efficient forest carbon sequestration compared to the assumption that these would always be in tropical areas with high rainfall. The ranking reflects the differences in the opportunity cost of land use and labour cost (production costs), the quality of the business environment (transaction costs), natural conditions (forest productivity), wildfire risk and the avoided GHG emissions from alternative land use. Cost-efficiency also depends on the type of forest project (afforestation, reforestation or forest conservation) and how private (wood harvest) and non-private (environmental and social) co-benefits are counted. A sensitivity analysis is undertaken to examine the robustness of the results with respect to uncertainties in values of the cost and quantity factors of forest carbon sequestration. The results support the view that forests can be a cost-efficient way to offset GHG emissions and that significant cost reductions are possible by targeting the country and sub-national regions in which to locate forest carbon sequestration projects. The report also reviews the literature on the significance and cost of forest carbon sequestration and provides an overview of forest carbon offset schemes.
  • 25-November-2021

    English

    COVID-19 and Well-being - Life in the Pandemic

    COVID-19 and Well-being: Life in the Pandemic explores the immediate implications of the pandemic for people’s lives and livelihoods in OECD countries. The report charts the course of well-being – from jobs and incomes through to social connections, health, work-life balance, safety and more – using data collected during the first 12-15 months of the pandemic. It also takes stock of what has happened to human, economic, social and natural capital that, beyond their effects on people’s lives today, shape living conditions for years to come. It shows how COVID-19 has had far-reaching consequences for how we live, work and connect with one another, and how experiences of the pandemic varied widely, depending on whether and where people work, their gender, age, race and ethnicity, education and income levels. The report also examines the role that well-being evidence can play in supporting governments’ pandemic recovery efforts. It argues that a well-being lens can prompt policy-makers to refocus on the outcomes that matter the most to people, to redesign policy content from a more multidimensional perspective, to realign policy practice across government silos, and to reconnect people with the public institutions that serve them.
  • 24-novembre-2021

    Français

    Examens environnementaux de l'OCDE : Lituanie 2021 (version abrégée)

    La Lituanie a vu de nombreuses pressions exercées sur l’environnement s’amplifier sous l’effet de sa rapide croissance économique. Elle s’est fixé d’ambitieux objectifs de lutte contre le changement climatique à moyen et long termes. Les politiques en vigueur ne permettront toutefois pas de les atteindre. Les émissions de gaz à effet de serre totales n’ont pas baissé au cours des dix dernières années, et celles des transports ont même augmenté rapidement. La Lituanie doit faire fond sur les progrès impressionnants réalisés dans l’abandon de la mise en décharge pour réduire la production de déchets et s’engager sur la voie de l’économie circulaire. Elle doit par ailleurs s’attaquer à la pollution de l’eau par les éléments nutritifs qui est imputable à la hausse de la consommation d’engrais et aux carences dans l’épuration des eaux usées. Ces efforts appellent une meilleure prise en compte des questions d’environnement dans les politiques sectorielles et une approche de la gestion de l’environnement à l’échelle de l’ensemble de l’administration. La Lituanie a entrepris d’apporter une série de modifications bénéfiques à la fiscalité liée à l’environnement. Elle devrait en revanche enrayer la tendance à la baisse des dépenses publiques d’environnement. Parmi les priorités, il conviendrait d’investir davantage dans les transports en commun et l’amélioration des conditions de circulation à pied et à vélo, afin de favoriser un report vers les modes de transport durables. Ceci est le premier Examen environnemental de l’OCDE consacré à la Lituanie. La présente version abrégée contient le résumé, de même que l’évaluation et les recommandations officielles du rapport, qui reposent sur les trois chapitres relatifs aux tendances et développements récents, à la gouvernance et à la croissance verte, ainsi que sur le chapitre spécial portant sur les mobilités durables. Le rapport complet est disponible en anglais sur le site web de l’OCDE.
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  • 16-November-2021

    English

    Meeting on Fossil-fuel subsidies in Armenia in the context of the SDG reporting framework

    UNEP has developed a reporting template which allows countries to report on fossil-fuel subsidy reform under SDG12 (“Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns”) and the related Target 12.c and Indicator 12.c.1. Of the EU’s Eastern Partner countries, Armenia has been selected to fill in and test the reporting template and provide feedback on the facility of its completion.

    Related Documents
  • 12-November-2021

    English

    Integrating Environmental and Climate Action into Development Co-operation - Reporting on DAC Members’ High-Level Meeting Commitments

    At their High-Level Meeting (HLM) in 2020, members of the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) set out a number of commitments and aspirations to align development co-operation with the objectives of international agreements to fight climate change and protect the environment. One year later, this report documents the individual and collective steps taken to give effect to the four voluntary commitments set out in the HLM Communiqué. It provides information on provisions and actions taken by DAC members to systematically integrate international environment and climate goals into development co-operation, to pursue more coordinated approaches, to support the transition of developing countries towards sustainable development pathways, and to better address the particular needs of Small Island Developing States.
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