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  • 18-October-2018

    English

    Energy Subsidy Reform in the Republic of Moldova - Energy Affordability, Fiscal and Environmental Impacts

    This report looks at the fiscal, environmental and social impacts of energy subsidy reform in Moldova with a particular focus on energy affordability. Reduced value added tax (VAT) rate on natural gas consumption and a VAT exemption on electricity and heat consumption by domestic users represent the largest fossil-fuel consumer subsidies in Moldova. Reforming these will imply an increase of the VAT rate, which will lead to an increase of gas, electricity and heat tariffs for households, and will in turn affect household consumption levels, related expenditures and energy affordability. If reform measures are to work, they will need to be accompanied by a carefully-designed social policy to protect poor households.
  • 20-July-2018

    English

    Access to Private Finance for Green Investments - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Financing in Ukraine

    This report provides a case study for the development of sustainable energy lending in Ukraine. It reviews the macro-economic and political context for green investments in Ukraine, before looking in more detail at the role and capacity of the banking sector. The study is part of a wider OECD project promoting access to private finance for green investments in the EU Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries, and follows on from a regional assessment undertaken in 2015. This work forms part of the 'Greening Economies in the European Union’s Eastern Neighbourhood' (EaP GREEN) programme, which aims to support the six Eastern Partnership countries to move towards a green economy by decoupling economic growth from environmental degradation and resource depletion.
  • 4-June-2018

    English

    Inventory of Energy Subsidies in the EU's Eastern Partnership Countries

    This publication aims to provide the first comprehensive and consistent record of energy subsidies in the EaP region, with a view to improving transparency and establishing a solid analytical basis that can help build the case for further reforms in these countries (this study covers Armenia, Azerbaijan Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine). Based on OECD standard methodology, the study provides quantitative estimates of government support provided to consumers and producers of coal, oil and related petroleum products, natural gas, and electricity and heat generated on the basis of these fossil fuels. This report also briefly looks at public support allocated to energy efficiency measures and renewable energy sources in the EaP countries, and discusses the taxation and energy pricing policies that underpin the analysis of energy subsidies. This publication was prepared within the framework of the 'Greening Economies in the Eastern Neighbourhood' (EaP GREEN) Project, supported by the European Union and co-ordinated with governments of the EaP countries and UN partners: UNECE, UN Environment and UNIDO.
  • 18-April-2018

    English

    Environmental Policy Toolkit for SME Greening in EU Eastern Partnership Countries

    This toolkit, based on existing good practice, aims to help governments in the EU’s Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine) to design and implement key instruments to promote environmental compliance and green business practices among small and medium-sized enterprises. Reducing the environmental impact of SMEs in both manufacturing and services is a key success factor in greening the economy. At the same time, improving environmental performance is a significant business opportunity for SMEs as important suppliers of goods and services. Developed under the EaP GREEN project, this report will be of interest to environmental and economic ministries, as well as business associations and non-governmental and academic institutions in EaP countries.
  • 10-April-2018

    English

    Strengthening Shardara Multi-Purpose Water Infrastructure in Kazakhstan

    More than 8 000 large multi-purpose water infrastructures (MPWIs) around the world contribute to economic development, as well as water, food and energy security, encompassing all human-made water systems including dams, dykes, reservoirs and associated irrigation canals and water supply networks. Focused on the specific case of the Shardara MPWI located in Low Syr-Darya Basin, South Kazakhstan and Kyzyl-Orda oblasts (provinces) of Kazakhstan, this report looks at the choice and design of MPWI investment strategies that ensure a high economic return on investments and potential bankability, based on application of a computer model and lessons learned from 15 international MPWI case studies.
  • 15-March-2018

    English

    Facilitating the Reform of Economic Instruments for Water Management in Georgia

    This study assesses the use of economic instruments for water resources management in Georgia and considers options for reform following the 2014 signature of an Association Agreement with the EU committing to alignment with the EU’s Water Framework Directive. This includes the systematic use of economic instruments, including water pricing, to recover the cost of water services provided to households, industry and farmers, among other measures. Three main economic instruments are recommended in this study: 1) the introduction of a licensing regime and charges for both surface water and groundwater abstraction, 2) the restoration of a licencing and charging regime for all forms of water pollution, and 3) more rigorous enforcement of these measures, including more active monitoring and higher fines for offenders. Implementing these measures will be greatly facilitated by the enactment of the new Water Law now being examined by the government of Georgia.
  • 6-February-2018

    English

    Mobilising Finance for Climate Action in Georgia

    This report discusses key issues surrounding finance mobilisation for achieving Georgia’s climate change and green growth targets, and new investment opportunities for developing its capital market. The report focuses particularly on finance for climate change mitigation from various sources – private and public, national and international – but remains relevant for other issues around the country’s green growth agenda, such as energy productivity, air pollution prevention, climate change adaptation, better waste management, conservation of natural resources, and the technologies and innovations that help tackle these issues.
  • 23-October-2017

    English

    2017 Annual Meeting of the GREEN Action Task Force

    26-27 October - The meeting was held in Almaty, Kazakhstan, back-to back with the OECD Eurasia Week (23-26 October). It focused on infrastructure investment and the low-carbon transition; water management and productivity of key sectors; cross-Ministerial policy co-ordination for Green Growth; One Belt one Road initiative; environmental policy tools for green economy and education, communication and public awareness for green growth.

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  • 23-October-2017

    English

    Improving Domestic Financial Support Mechanisms in Moldova's Water and Sanitation Sector

    The water supply and sanitation (WSS) sector in Moldova is not financially sustainable: tariffs do not typically cover operational costs and capital investments are heavily funded by external development partners. This report analyses several options for streamlining and strengthening domestic financial support mechanisms (DFSMs) in terms of both supply and demand, discusses different scenarios and recommends a number of actions to ensure effective DFSM implementation, notably: 1) sufficient investment for the implementation of targets and obligations set in the national strategies, the Association Agreement with the EU, as well as Moldova’s international commitments (water-related Sustainable Development Goals, and the 'Water-to-all' commitment); 2) the financial sustainability of operators; and 3) the affordability of WSS services for end-users, especially low-income segments of the population.
  • 29-September-2017

    English

    Reforming Sanitation in Armenia - Towards a National Strategy

    This report assesses the state of Armenia’s sanitation services, which are in poor shape, and proposes ways forward for reforming the sector by: ensuring equitable access by all and identifying solutions that work for the poorest and most remote communities; generating economies of scale and scope, and reducing both investment and operational costs for the efficient delivery of sanitation services; and moving towards sustainable cost recovery for the sanitation sector, by identifying how much funding can be mobilised from within the sector and how much external transfers are required. The state of Armenia’s sanitation services are inadequate, with 51% of the population in rural areas using unimproved facilities, causing direct damage to the environment and exposing inhabitants to health risks, and better access but degraded sewerage-system infrastructure in urban areas, posing health hazards due to potential cross-contamination between sewage and drinking water. According to preliminary estimates, EUR 2.6 billion of investments will be required to meet Armenia’s sanitation needs, with approximately EUR 1 billion needing to be spent in the next 7 to 10 years. Given the country’s current economic situation, this investment will have to be spread over time and targeted to avoid further deterioration of infrastructure and increase of the financing gap.
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