Lithuania’s rapid economic growth has increased many environmental pressures. The
country has declared ambitious medium- and long-term climate change mitigation goals.
However, existing policies will not be enough to meet them. Total greenhouse gas emissions
have not declined over the last decade, while those from transport have been rising
rapidly. Lithuania needs to build on its impressive progress in moving away from landfilling
to reduce waste generation and steer towards a circular economy. Water pollution with
nutrients from the increased use of fertilisers and insufficiently treated wastewater
must also be addressed. These efforts require improved integration of environmental
considerations into sectoral policies and a whole-of-government approach to environmental
Lithuania is implementing a series of positive changes in environment-related taxation.
However, the trend of declining public environmental expenditure should be reversed.
One priority area is additional investment in public transport and improvements in
cycling and walking conditions that would help steer user behaviour towards sustainable
This is the first OECD Environmental Performance Review of Lithuania. It evaluates
progress towards green growth and sustainable development, with a special chapter
focusing on sustainable mobility.
Published on September 27, 2021Also available in: French