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  • 29-juin-2020

    Français

    Essai n° 405 : Effet irritant/corrosif aigu sur les yeux

    Cette méthode fournit des informations sur les dangers pour la santé qui peuvent résulter de l’application d’une substance d’essai (solide ou liquide et d’aérosols) sur les yeux. Cette Ligne directrice est utilisée préférablement avec des lapins albinos. La substance d’essai est appliquée en dose unique dans le sac conjonctif d’un œil. L’autre œil, non traité, servira de contrôle. L’essai initial emploie un animal ; le niveau de dose dépend de la nature de la substance à tester. Un essai de confirmation doit être fait si un effet corrosif n’est pas observé lors de l’essai initial, la réponse irritante ou négative doit être confirmée en utilisant deux animaux supplémentaires. Il est recommandé que ce soit fait de manière séquentielle, un animal à la fois, plutôt que d’exposer les deux simultanément. La durée de l’observation doit être suffisante pour évaluer pleinement l’ampleur et la réversibilité des effets observés. Les yeux doivent être observés 1, 24, 48 et 72 heures après l’application. Les scores d'irritation oculaire doivent être évalués en conjonction avec la nature et la sévérité des lésions et leur réversibilité ou leur absence de réversibilité. L’utilisation d’anesthésiques topiques et d’analgésiques systémiques pour réduire ou éviter la douleur et la détresse dans le cadre des essais de sécurité pour l'œil est décrite.
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  • 26-juin-2020

    Français

    Lignes directrices de l’OCDE pour les essais de produits chimiques

    Le 26 juin, l'OCDE a adopté un ensemble de Lignes Directrices pour les essais de produits chimiques de manière à tenir compte des progrès des connaissances scientifiques et des techniques pour les membres de l'OCDE et les pays adhérents à l'acceptation mutuelle des données (AMD).

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  • 25-June-2020

    English

    EU4Environment virtual consultation with Belarus

    On 25 June 2020, the EU4Environment Implementing Partners, jointly with the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection of Belarus, will hold a virtual consultation. The objectives are to review the in-country situation in light of COVID-19; present progress with EU4Environment implementation; discuss plans for the rest of the year in light of the COVID-19 pandemic.

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  • 25-June-2020

    English

    Emergency responses for the supply of disinfectants against Covid-19

    The COVID-19 pandemic calls for urgent policy responses to support the supply of disinfectant products such as hand sanitisers and wipes. The OECD is collecting and providing available information in countries to manage the emergency supply to increase availability of disinfectant products from different competent authorities and industry organisations.

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  • 22-June-2020

    English

    OECD Biotechnology Update

    Read our newsletter to stay up-to-date with all the latest OECD work on biotechnology.

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  • 22-June-2020

    English

    Carbon pricing design: Effectiveness, efficiency and feasibility - An investment perspective

    Carbon pricing helps countries steer their economies towards and along a carbon-neutral growth path. This paper considers how the design of carbon pricing instruments affects their effectiveness, efficiency and feasibility. Design choices matter both for taxes and Emissions Trading Systems (ETSs). Considering the role of carbon price stability for clean investment, the paper shows how volatile carbon prices can cause risk-averse investors to forego clean investment that they would have undertaken with more stable prices. The paper then evaluates the effectiveness and efficiency of policy instruments to stabilise carbon prices in ETSs, which tend to produce more volatile carbon prices than taxes. The paper analyses the auction reserve price in California, the carbon price support in the UK, and the market stability reserve in the EU ETS. Considering feasibility, the paper discusses the tax (or emissions) base, how revenue use can affect support from households and firms, and administrative choices.
  • 22-June-2020

    English

    Towards a green fiscal reform in the Slovak Republic - Proposals for strengthening the role of market-based environmental policy instruments

    Environmental fiscal reforms are an essential building block to steer countries onto a sustainable long-term development path. This paper develops proposals for strengthening the role of market-based environmental policy instruments in the Slovak Republic. The paper discusses reform options aimed at mitigating air pollution and climate change, improved waste management and biodiversity conservation. This includes measures such as introduction of automatic indexation of environmentally related taxes, differentiation of energy tax rates by emission intensity of fuels, broadening tax bases to include all emission sources and reforming preferential fiscal treatment of household fuel use – a major source of local air pollution. In the waste management domain, raising the landfill tax to better reflect external environmental costs of particular tax bases would help encourage diversion of waste from landfills. A complementary waste incineration tax would help incentivise waste prevention, composting and material recycling.
  • 16-June-2020

    English

    OECD Good Laboratory Practice: Frequently asked questions (FAQ)

    GLP issues raised by testing labs are covered in this comprehensive list of questions and answers, recently updated with questions related to: Test Facility organisation and personnel, Quality Assurance, Equipment and computerized systems, Test items, reference items and samples/specimens (Biologicals, GMOs, etc.), SOPs, Management of the study, Histopathology, Archives and E-Archives and Monitoring Test Facility compliance by GLP CMAs.

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  • 16-June-2020

    English

    Decarbonising Urban Mobility with Land Use and Transport Policies - The Case of Auckland, New Zealand

    The report presents an in-depth analysis of various policies that aim to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of urban transport. Decarbonising transport lies at the core of efforts to mitigate climate change and has close links to urban sustainability and housing affordability. The report identifies the drivers of rising emissions in the urban transport sector and offers pathways to reduce them through a combination of transport and land use policies. The analysis yields a holistic welfare evaluation of these policies, assessing them according to their environmental effectiveness, their economic efficiency and their impact on fiscal balance and housing affordability. The report concludes that significant reductions in emissions from urban transport can be achieved through a careful alignment of transport policies designed to promote the use of public transit and electric vehicles, and land use policies, which foster a more compact urban form. The study is based on the case of Auckland, New Zealand but the lessons drawn are relevant for institutions and governments working on issues relating to urban sustainability, transport, housing and climate change mitigation.
  • 12-June-2020

    English

    Reporting progress towards Nationally Determined Contributions - Exploring possible common tabular formats for the structured summary

    Common Tabular Formats (CTFs) for the reporting of information necessary to track progress towards Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) under Article 4 of the Paris Agreement, including on the use of cooperative approaches, are to be adopted by COP26. This paper explores concrete examples and worked examples for the structured summary of information to track progress, including on information on cooperative approaches. This paper finds that the structured summary would be more likely to meet the principles established in the Paris Agreement and related decisions, including the Modalities, Procedures and Guidelines (MPGs), if it was separated into CTFs for reporting on tracking progress indicators and a CTF for reporting on the use of cooperative approaches.
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